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Production cost and quality as constraints in textile design


Discuss about the Waste Textiles and Development Prospect.

There are two significant constraints that have been faced in designing and producing the textile item. They are the production cost and the quality of the product. The term production cost signifies the cost experienced in manufacturing or producing the specific product. However pertaining to this scenario, it is noted that the production cost has been limited to under $50 which certainly bring in constraints on compromising upon the quality of the product. Therefore quality becomes another constraint in the decision making process. This is because if the production cost is fixed even before considering the type of product to be produced, designing, materials to be used, sewing charges and others, it limits the manufacturer to opt for compromises (Sahni et al., 2010).

Nonetheless, the manufacturer might consider in using the re-cycled materials to be another suitable option to curtail the cost. However, reusing or up cycling of the raw materials has been a pivotal topic of discussion which allured the world to go gaga over it. There are reasons that can be cited pertaining to the aspect of reusing textiles which are as follows:

  • It is instrumental in the minimization of green house emissions
  • It helps in eradicating landfill space problems
  • It aids in the conservation of energy
  • It transforms the clothes to new materials (Ruifang, 2009)

However, there is another terminology that crops up when citing the reasons for reusing textiles which is the issue of sustainability. Sustainability is considered to be a vast subject which has been prioritized i the recent ages as it contributes to the healthier edge of the society as well as conservation of the third planet. Concerning the supply chain framework of the textile sector, diverse suppliers have been traced to get involved in several complicated domains such as the environmental, social and others (Zhongzhen et al., 2012).

Sustainability referring to reuse materials or cheap use certainly comes with an environmental cost. According to the World Wildlife Fund, t is recorded that 1kg lint of cotton is used in the production of a single jeans. Further this 1 kg cotton is derived from 8500 litres. However, the entire process incorporates the usage of pesticides, fertilizers along with water that certainly causes to water pollution and unwanted waste in the land. Considering the social sustainability, it is witnessed that the labour pertaining to textile industry is often exploited as they are hired at very low wages, labour abuse, involuntary overtime and others in the developing countries. This is mostly happening because of the recent competitiveness in maintaining the production cost factor that employs cheap labour and its exploitation thereby giving rise to violation of labour laws and other legal standards (Early, 2011).

Environmental and social impact of textile production

The above photo illustrates those huge amounts of old garments wind up pertaining to landfill. Producers and fashion industries require pondering reusing. Additionally convoluting the sustainability pertaining to the worldwide design sector, it is noted that reusing or up cycling the textile materials is dangerous. Hennes &Mauritz as well as Clemens &August Brenninkmeijer rush to talk about energy effectiveness concerning their outlets and expanded reusing of garments holders as well as their inclination towards natural cotton. The resolved truth remains, in any case, that very nearly 11 million tons of materials winds up creating landfill corresponding to US (Fletcher, 2013).

One obstacle for expanded material reusing in regards to the different strands that include apparel posing obstacles concerning the aspects of reprocessing as well as reusing. A few materials for example cotton or linen might be transformed into compost, however, “petroleum based fibres”, for example, polyester stands minimal possibility for up cycling (Kaye, 2011).

Barely any municipalities acknowledge materials into their reusing programs. Including the loads of apparels dismissed through the retailers in light of certain defects or theses are the apparels which might have failed to hit the season while the outcome is an asset which is not so effectively recyclable while compared to that of aluminium jars, glasses and may be plastic (Shen, 2014). 

The child labours concerning the social sustainability issues must always be exhibited as it is a shame to see the future of the globe to toil so hard day and night simply to earn their meals. In most cases, they are exploited so that they could earn few pennies and provide support to their families. It is undoubtedly saddening g to see the children being the worst victims of these sweatshops employed by different suppliers pertaining to textile industry due to international competitiveness (Norris, 2010). Furthermore, it is quite evident that these children will not be bestowed with breakfast as well as any other meal if they do not work. Nonetheless, banning the child labour has been considered to be an integral socialistic tool but has not been validated quite effectively. According to Forbes as speculated during 2015, it was recorded that pertaining to the Child Act of 1986, there was a sudden minimization corresponding to the wages paid to the children while on the other hand, there was an expansion pertaining to child labour. While conducting surveys upon the households, it was further noted that the houses confronted more sickening and worsened situations after the ban concerning child labour (Worstall, 2015).

Benefit of reusing and upcycling textile materials

The fabric type on the front view is the lustre printed velvet fabric type. The back view possesses polyester fabric type. The lustre velvet fabric source is derived from tufted fabric. Furthermore the velvet fabric takes its birth from silk while cotton might be used rarely. Again on the contrary, polyester fabric uses synthetic polymer which is derived from pure terephthalic acid as well as monoethylene glycol (Singer, 2007).

In order to care for the velvet fabric, the application of steamer might be initiated in order to press little creases if that appears at all. However, it is strictly prohibited to use iron for velvet fabric. Moreover, these are the fabrics that must be stored carefully but should never be folded. When it comes to cleaning, little volume of dishwasher might be mixed with water thus forming a sudsy solution. A cloth might be immersed and then rubbed in the velvet fabric area that comprises stain. It is suggested to send the velvet fabric to any dry cleaning centre or laundry (Castellani et al., 2015).

Affordable pricing- these velvet fabrics come in affordable prices and are considered apt for upholstery and cushion cover materials. Gone are the days that the velvet costs so much, now-a-days, these fabric provides lustre and are of low cost which goes at par with the production cost.

The constraints as discussed will be related to the production cost as well as the quality of the cushion cover. It has already been stated that the designer will be able to use only under $ 50 for production. Though there are velvet fabrics now-a-days that can be traced in the market which come at affordable and cheap pricing, still velvet is such a material that is always related with elegance, traditional value and its softness. Moreover, the production of authentic velvet comprises very high production cost. Therefore the production cost certainly becomes a constraint in the light that if the designer plans to use high quality velvet then it will create genuine issues. Another factor is the quality that will be compromised due to low production cost (Fletcher, 2013).

One such information might be the reuse of the velvet from the old apparel, curtains or other materials. In this way, it might bring down the expenses of the production cost. Moreover, reusing different coloured materials will certainly add a varied fervour to the design.

Nonetheless, the design that has been selected is cut out from different material parts. Moreover, the materials in the design are used in smaller dimensions thus creating a contrasting image that allures the buyer. Further the quality is also not comprehensible as the materials are used in small dimensions and layered forms (Hiller & Kozar, 2012).

Fabric care for velvet fabrics

Week 1

Week 2-3

Week 3-4

Week 5

Week 6-7

Fabric arrangement

Exploring design



Product finishing

At first, throughout week 1, the fabric arrangement was conducted which entails in reusing of the old velvet materials. During week 2 to 3, certain designs pertaining to cushion cover and upholstery were explored and thought about while week 3 -4 comprises the formation of the actual design. After that during week 5, different coloured materials were cut from the old materials thereby up cycling the raw materials and constituted for the formation of cushion cover through careful stitching. Lastly during week 6 to 7, cushion was inserted within the cover while the measurement was taken for the back cover and a zip was stitched (Castellani et al., 2015).

  1. a) Yes, the practical almost paralleled with the plan and decision making process as the constraints were kept in mind and worked accordingly.
  2. b) Certainly, the theme that has been highlighted through the entire process is of reusing textile concept. The basic concept underlines the issue of wasting less through the incorporation of reusing purposes. This is because through the aspect of reuse, the green house gas emissions are minimized, focuses on conservation of energy as well as help in eradicating landfill issues (Shen, 2014).
  3. c) One Hundred percent effort has been put in this overall process so that the project that has been weaved turns into reality and is acknowledged.
  4. d) Yes, the production schedule has been detailed thoroughly
  5. e) The schedule reflects all the areas concerned with the project
  6. f) Initially the planning was not detailed but with little assistance from external resources it has been worked out
  7. g) Initially there was indecision regarding the selection of the product and then regarding the material procurement. However, it got completed by time.
  8. h) Yes, the constraints have been identified as well as underpinned within the process journal.
  9. i) The project planning was such that it satiates the aspects like low cost production, unique design as well as durability which have been addressed in the finished good.
  10. j) The project process has already been analysed in the above section. Due to the constraints like low cost production and quality, reusing velvet fabric has been incorporated. Further going by the theories, it is noted that velvet comprises durability which is another aspect that satiates the decisions (Earley, 2011).
  11. k) The justifications posses the best efforts tried to materialise the project irrespective of certain constraints.
  12. l) Three changes to be made are as follows:


Castellani, V., Sala, S., & Mirabella, N. (2015). Beyond the throwaway society: A life cycle?based assessment of the environmental benefit of reuse. Integrated environmental assessment and management, 11(3), 373-382.

Earley, R. (2011). Worn Again: Rethinking Recycled Textiles 2005–2009.

Ekström, K. M., & Salomonson, N. (2014). Reuse and recycling of clothing and textiles—A network approach. Journal of Macromarketing, 34(3), 383-399.

Fletcher, K. (2013). Sustainable fashion and textiles: design journeys. Routledge.

Hiller Connell, K. Y., & Kozar, J. M. (2012). Sustainability knowledge and behaviors of apparel and textile undergraduates. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 13(4), 394-407.

Kaye, L. (2011). Textile recycling innovation challenges clothing industry. [online] the Guardian. Available at: [Accessed 30 Aug. 2017].

Niinimäki, K., & Hassi, L. (2011). Emerging design strategies in sustainable production and consumption of textiles and clothing. Journal of Cleaner Production, 19(16), 1876-1883.

Norris, L. (2010). Recycling Indian clothing: Global contexts of reuse and value. Indiana University Press.

Palmsköld, A. (2015). Reusing Textiles: On Material and Cultural Wear and Tear. Culture Unbound: Journal of Current Cultural Research, 7(1), 31-43.

Ruifang, L. (2009). Review of Reusing Technology of Recycled PET Bottles [J]. Guangdong Chemical Industry, 7, 125.

Sahni, S., Boustani, A., Gutowski, T., & Graves, S. (2010). Textile Remanufacturing and Energy Savings.

Shen, B. (2014). Sustainable fashion supply chain: Lessons from H&M. Sustainability, 6(9), 6236-6249.

Singer, M. (2007). Textile Surface Decoration: Silk and Velvet. University of Pennsylvania Press.

Taohai, Y., & Jinshui, L. (2012). A Preliminary Study of Recycling and Reusing of Waste Textile [J]. Shandong Textile Science & Technology, 2, 015.

Tidwell, K. A. (2015). U.S. Patent No. 8,950,029. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Worstall, T. (2015). Forbes Welcome. [online] Available at: [Accessed 30 Aug. 2017].

Zhongzhen, W., Guiyan, X., & Jiqing, D. (2012). Recycling and Reusing Industry of Waste Textiles & Development Prospect. Shandong Textile Science & Technology, 4, 013.

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