1.Different antenna, such as yagi, horn, and celluar antennas, etc. has different merits. Research these technologies in details and pay specific attention to how they are used as well their strengths and weakness.
2.Compare and contrast the multiplexing techniques CDMA and FDMA in the area of wireless networking?
3.A local engineering group ask you to present your finding of the most recent advanced wireless technologies. Research these technologies in details and pay specific attention to how they are used as well their strengths and weakness.
In recent times different kinds of antennas available those are facilitating wireless communication all over (Song, Nuaymi & Lagrange, 2016). Among all the antennas available, microstrip antenna is the best and is expected to rule in mere future. The report will grandstand all the antennas and the wireless technologies, and their strength as well as weakness will be showcased in details.
1.Various antennas, those antennas’ strength and weakness, the antenna which will dominate in future.
YAGI antennas were previously used in the television, and they cannot be used for long frequency instead can only be used for only one frequency (Abdulhamid, 2017). The antennas consist of a reflector, single or multiple directors and single driven element.
- YAGI has also limited impedance levels that can be lessened.
- The antenna is responsible for lowering signal strength because of the antenna’a gain (Abdulhamid, 2017)
- YAGI has been designed in such a way that it can be ascend on the vertical poles and similar other poles.
- The gain permissible for a single YAGI antenna is 20dB
- The antenna sometimes extends for augmented gain levels
The radio waves within the Horn antenna transmit or radiates to the vacuum space and this antenna gives a transmission structure where both the impedance of the tube and the vacuum space is checked (Li et al., 2016). The antenna is basically of five prototypes-exponential, conical, sectoral, corrugated and pyramid.
- The horn antenna gives efficient performance.
- The horn antenna’s gain can be prolonged up to 25 dBi.
- The antenna can function over a wide extent of frequencies as well as the bandwidth.
- The antenna has deficits and lack lots and lots of quality parameters.
- The antenna must be configured with care (Li et al., 2016).
This antenna is used among the masses and is light weight. The microstrip antenna is very easy to install and configure. The antenna is used in the GPS, missile systems, satellite connection, and mobile connection (Jariyatantiwait & Yen, 2016). The reasons why it is used among the masses and is used worldwide and is dominant because of the following magnificent features it offer.
The advantages that microstip antenna offers are-
- The antenna is very easy to generate, install and configure.
- It is profitable in terms of budget.
- The microstrip antennas are potent radiators.
- The antenna is beneficial for both direct, circular polarization (Jariyatantiwait & Yen, 2016).
- The antenna is very easy to collaborate with microwave incorporated circuits.
2.Compare and contrast CDMA and FDMA in the area of wireless networking
FDMA Infrastructure and design: The frequency band is separated into multiple distinct small frequency bands or sub frequency bands.
FDMA Terminals: The terminals of FDMA have its own frequency in a continued fashion.
Signal Prepare: FDMA signal can be generated by means of filtering in the frequency domain.
FDMA basic advantage: FDMA is relatively simple, easy to install and configure and full of elegance
FDMA disadvantage: The frequency available via FDMA is not adequate and the frequency is rigid in nature.
Other features: FDMA is sometimes combined with SDMA, TDMA for better consequences.
CDMA infrastructure and design: CDMA is designed via expanding the spectrum by employing the orthogonal codes.
CDMA terminals: All the associate CDMA terminals all at once can be made active in a continued fashion.
CDMA signal generate: CDMA signals can be generated by specially designed codes and specially designed receivers.
CDMA basic advantages: CDMA is easy adaptable in nature, requires less planning.
CDMA disadvantages: The receivers are complex in nature and more complicated power control is necessary for the senders.
Other features: CDMA is combined with the FDMA and TDMA can give better consequences though this combination procedure is little bit complicated.
3.Advanced wireless technologies, their use, their strength, their weakness
This technology is used worldwide and can be installed and configured in the mobile and other similar devices to transmit data, it may be audio, video or any word document file.
- Bluetooth technology is wireless technology
- Bluetooth is cheap and profitable in terms of budget (Dahiya & Gill, 2016).
- It consumes low power and energy
- Voice, personal data and files can be shared via Bluetooth
- It is used worldwide and among the masses.
- Bluetooth is very easy to install and configure (Dahiya & Gill, 2016).
- It is very easy to use and easy to handle.
- The Bluetooth devices can be easily attacked by the intruders or the attackers.
- The Bluetooth irrespective of laptops or mobiles is responsible for battery drain (Dahiya & Gill, 2016).
- The data or information transfer via Bluetooth devices is comparatively slower.
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags technology basically utilize the radio waves to scan the tags attached with a particular object (Kitsos, 2016). RFID technology is also used to detect the living objects as well.
- RFID technology is used as security base system at the entry gate to detect any guests and visitors.
- RFID technology is used to detect living objects be it human beings and animals alongside the objects (Kitsos, 2016).
- RFID has the capability to detect living and non-living objects from two hundred meters.
- RFID tags are comparatively large compared to the bar codes
- The RFID technology is complicated so the operator may face issues (Kitsos, 2016).
- RFID is comparatively less reliable and not full proof trustworthy.
- The RFID technology is very costly compared to the bar code.
It can be concluded from the above discourse that the mentioned microstrip antenna is better compared to all other contemporary antennas available. The CDMA and FDMA has been grandstand, both have been compared and contrast. The report also showcased the advanced wireless technologies along with the strength and weakness associated with the wireless technology.
Abdulhamid, M. F. (2017). Comparative analysis of distributed power control algorithms in CDMA. Radioelectronics and Communications Systems, 60(6), 263-271.
Brown, L. V., Zhao, K., Halas, N. J., & Nordlander, P. J. (2016). U.S. Patent No. 9,372,151. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Dahiya, M., & Gill, S. (2016). Secured Bluetooth Authentication Using Artificial Neural Networks. IJRCCT, 5(5), 244-248.
Jariyatantiwait, C., & Yen, G. G. (2016). 5 by 5 Microstrip Antenna Array Design by Multiobjective Differential Evolution based on Fuzzy Performance Feedback. International Journal of Swarm Intelligence Research (IJSIR), 7(4), 1-22.
Kitsos, P. (Ed.). (2016). Security in RFID and sensor networks. CRC Press.
Li, L., Li, J., He, B., Zhang, S., & Zhang, A. (2016). A Compact Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna with Bandwidth Enhancement. Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, 61, 85-89.
Song, Q., Nuaymi, L., & Lagrange, X. (2016, April). Evaluation of multiple access strategies with power control error and variable packet length in M2M. In Wireless Communications and Networking Conference Workshops (WCNCW), 2016 IEEE (pp. 379-384). IEEE.