1. Recruitment & Selection Procedure:
As referred to in the given case of PM Company, the lack of an effective human resource management has led to the issues related to leadership and ineffective administration of the company. In order to achieve an overall administration excellence one of the key aspects to be considered is the recruitment and selection procedures (Iltis, 2004). Recruitment process needs to be well aligned with the identification of the best available applicant to fill up a vacant position within the firm. Recruitment needs to be conducted by either of internal or external processes.
External Recruitment – This procedure would allow PM Company to take decision out of a varied availability of options in the form of a wide pool of talents. It would provide wider opportunities to introduce innovative business ideas and experiences. Although this process may sometimes lead to ineffective hiring, when performed in a controlled manner it may prove to be beneficial (Ishii, Rohitarachoon and Hossain, 2013).
It is important to take adequate care while deciding for the best selection of recruitment procedure. These procedures are required to be structured to create a positive image towards applicants who may prove to be potential employees in future, thereby giving clear understanding of work including what is expected of them, improving quality of pool of applicants, and minimizing the risk of ineffective decisions (Hallinger and Heck, 2010). Recruiting staffs need to discuss plans or strategies of all departmental managers at PM Company along with human resource services for assuring effective guidance to allow all processes to run smoothly. It must be considered and cared during shaping of the contents of recruitment activity perfect for vacancy.
- Draft information needs to be used in declaring positionwith brief description of the required work as well as preferences for employee qualifications like specific training, skills, abilities and knowledge.
- The employment coordinator must review all announcement drafts to maintain increased consistency with required specifications.
When any other selection approach is planned apart from that of the interview, it should relate directly to the main job requirements and also selected carefully, designed professionally, and applied effectively to ensure no biasness in the selection procedure (Slowther, 2010). When required, support is to be taken from the human resource department.
Selection of the most suitable staffs for filling the vacant positions should rely on their qualifications to attain the post. The management of PM Company should reasonably document the recruitment decisions to verify the benefits of selection. All chosen applicants need to have the least qualification and experience for the corresponding position (Timming, 2011). The qualification and experience required would act as indicators of necessary knowledge, skills and abilities as represented through job evaluation outcomes within successful performances. Specific set of formal education may be substituted for required experiences within several positions.
Legal, Regulatory & Ethical Considerations:
It is highly important to follow ethical rules in recruitment and selection processes. Organizational management is always expected to act ethically and fairly. Applicants need to be selected based solely on their merits, skills and abilities. Objectivity as well as consistency is utmost important in the processes (Ethical and Regulatory Considerations in Prescribing RU-486, 2011). The firm needs to define and prescribe a written form of ethical rules for conducting its business activities.
Methods of Selection of Staffs:
Selection of staffs for filling the vacant positions at PM Company would rely on their possessed qualifications that match. Those contestants considered to be most qualified are provided additional advantages. The approach would be used in recruitments, transfers, promotions, and reinstatements. The qualification and experience required would often act as indicators of the required abilities, knowledge and skills presented by job evaluation outcomes within successful performances.
Prediction of future job performances is often a complex process considering that effective performances within job roles would be influenced by variables. Hence, selection decisions must not be isolated from practices related to human resource. The practice of diversity management is another factor in decision-making process (TUMASJAN and STROBEL, 2010). The organizational management must practice more sophisticated selection processes and not just relying upon a single source of information. Being the new CEO of the Company, my personal contribution in the selection process would be that to adopt effective selection decisions like informal and unstructured interviews, over telephone or even structured situational interviews, competency-related interviews, selection through assessment centres, and psychometric tests. Psychometric tests in the selection process would ensure procedural justice. The firm PM Company must consider that jobs performed by individuals in different ways may still prove to be effective. Thus, one-size selection technique must never be chosen by the firm. Irrespective of the complex the process of recruitment or selection, it is always necessary for a company to monitor the outcomes of the recruitment or selection policies as well as practices systematically.
2. Skills and Attributes needed for Leadership:
An effective leadership involves some of the most common and desirable traits that a leader possesses. To mention few are passion, communication, commitment to staff, team-building and decisiveness.
- Passion – Effective leaders possess the passion or the drive to conduct tasks that they consider to be important. Sharing the similar passion with other staffs would be quite motivating for the employees. Passion allows leaders to love their jobs and conduct them in the best possible manner (Wong and Wong, 2004).
- Communication – This is an essential attribute for leaders as they need to communicate with staffs both at higher and lower organizational levels. Effective communication permits employees to stay well-informed and this raises their personal motivation. This leadership trait is also important to maintain proper coordination among all employees.
- Commitment to Staff – Effective leaders well understand the essentiality of staying committed to staffs. By imparting adequate training to staffs and expressing confidence among them assures them further. Leaders with increased commitment to staff ensure equal and just employee treatment and it acts as a key source of motivation for employees.
- Team-building – Motivating employees to work cohesively and not competitively can often lead to increased productivity and morale. When leaders promote cooperative atmosphere without any personal conflicts, they in fact contribute towards team-building and this gives lot of employee satisfaction (Prosser, 2009).
- Decisiveness – Staffs often rely upon leaders to make quick and logical decisions. Thus, every effective leader need to possess the trait of improved decisiveness to help members at any point of time.
Difference between Leadership and Management:
The key distinction amidst a leader and a manager is that leader gain people to follow them whereas managers gain people who work for them. Leadership is all about practicing the norm of bringing all organizational staffs together and help them participate into constructive decision-making and guiding them throughout to achieve the desired goals. These attributes enable a leader to act as a constant source of support and guidance for other employees to achieve desired goals. On the other hand, management involves controlling and managing of organizational workforce and processes to achieve profitability (Beba, 2014). The managers engage into controlling the workforce to get the work done. Leadership involves getting individuals to understand as well as believe in one’s vision as well as work cohesively to achieve goals whereas managing is related to administering as well as ensuring conduct of regular activities.
Leadership Styles for different situations:
No single leadership style can prove to be effective in every situation. Some of the leadership styles are autocratic, democratic, transformational, and laissez faire leadership. Transformational leadership is contrasted with other styles such as transactional style or autocratic style. It focuses on the responsibilities of a firm, supervision and also group contribution. In this case, the leader motivates the members with rewards and punish by penalties (P. and King, 2013). On the other hand, autocratic leadership means dictating policies of a leader who decides on desired achievable goals including controlling and directing activities without employee participation. This shows dictatorship of a leader being strictly undesirable. Another leadership style is democratic leadership style which involves a leader to share capabilities of decision-making with team members encouraging interests of entire workforce with social equality. As compared to other styles, transformational leadership style is much more effective as well as inspiring for members.
Ways to motivate staff to achieve objectives:
It is essential for the human resource management department of PM Company to promote growth by increasingly motivating the staffs and employees under a mentor with respect to individual target positions and moving out of their comfort zone with enhanced base of knowledge and experiences with achievable growth. The management of PM Company must create a distinct understanding of workforce, determining individual goals, maintaining timely reviews to allow effective communication (Briggs, 2003). All departmental managers within the organization must use key assessment techniques such as maintaining highest form of organizational competence, along with feasible tangible results that may exceed expectations and lead to achievement of overall goals. It is to be considered by organizational managers that allowing constant employee engagement within jobs refers to maximizing comfort at specific positions, and also motivate further achievement of organizational and personal goals. It is to be noticed by the departmental managers that staffs those are contented and willingly engaged in tasks are more prone to progress at an increased rate. They lead to enhanced productivity and effectiveness of organizations. They need to review the strategies and revive to fetch the increased benefits of the employees of PM Company (Bush, 2012). The organizational management also needs to ensure effective implementation of the strategies having positive impacts on the workforce. This would motivate them to a greater extent.
3. Benefits of Team-working:
As given scenario of PM Company, it has been identified that the organization has been facing the inevitable outcome of an ineffective human resource management and strategies. It has been recently facing issues related to leadership, administration and management. The firm had been incurring severe losses and it even owed salaries to its staffs. Moreover, customers who once relied upon them had been retrieving (Bush, 2005). The entire administration of the firm may be referred as poorly organized. In situation like this, the most essential requisite is to gather effective personnel and skilled staffs who may coordinate cohesively and build effective teams. Team work and effort may prove to be highly beneficial for the organization at this situation.
Team work would involve various kinds of individuals across varied business areas to maximize their efficiencies and attain common goals. Apart from providing employees with much experience, some other benefits are enhanced efficiency, innovation, financial savings, and employee morale.
- Improved Morale – Teamwork would permit employees to adopt greater responsibilities to make effective decisions and also allowing them to control work processes. This enhances their morale by imparting them authority over certain projects. Additional responsibility may result in reward work environment with reduced turnover. In case of PM Company, teamwork would provide the employees with greater sense of recognition and pride (Carver, 2002).
- Increased Flexibility – Teamwork imparts greater flexibility to firms. It ensures mutual cooperation of employees from varied backgrounds and professional streams, thereby imparting with opportunities to operate flexibly. By this manner, the work progresses at a much faster pace.
- Greater Innovation - Teamwork is greatly helpful in creating a favorable work environment that excels in creativity. Individuals are recruited in general areas of work and then selected particular projects to best fit their skills as well as interests. Innovation is highly promoted by means of teamwork and employees feel free to initiate new teams with new ideas (Mahmood, 2014).
The social context of teamwork generates much advanced work experience to team members that encourage high performances. Teamwork would prove to be highly beneficial for PM Company as it would enhance mutual support. Since members can depend upon others with shared objectives, they may attain assistance as well as encouragement to work on tasks (Jain, 2014). The support may motivate the people to achieve desired objectives and gain self-confidence. The concept of teamwork would impart high sense of accomplishment. When different teams within the organization would take collective responsibility for certain objectives, they would feel the drive to accomplish goals all by themselves. Thus, the value of teamwork would rely upon the overall efficiency of team efforts (Landry, 2012).
It is a common norm that firms often ask staffs to accomplish tasks requiring them to work as teams. Team work imparts several advantages involving new acquaintances, feeling of group accomplishment as well as responsibility distribution. On the other hand, if not managed effectively teamwork may even lead to anxiety as well as tensions amidst employees due to lack of effective communication. This may eliminate all stress and adverse feelings related to working in teams. The managers at PM Company must encourage members to conduct communication while working cooperatively (Schwetz, 2005).
Varied opinions as well as perspectives of team members are inevitable. This also raises the chances of leading to conflicts among team members. Although team is all about welcoming ideas, experiences, goals, and thoughts of all its members, nevertheless the disagreements are unavoidable. These may arise due to varied expectations, priorities, objectives and decisions. Thus, it becomes a key requisite to identify and resolve the issues within the team processes. Often, conflicts arise due to misunderstanding or assumptions of team members (Lowder, n.d.). Thus, in that case the members are required to conduct effective communication, negotiation, and explanation. Also, conflicts may arise when members compete within teams to attain a particular role of a leader. Thus, every team member must be well aware of individual roles and responsibilities to complement each other rather than competing against each other.
To deal with all kinds of conflicts, team must undertake the following:
- Discuss opinions, assumptions, views and priorities quite openly
- Considering the thoughts of members and avoiding discrimination at any phase
- Ensuring effective communication, sharing of information, negotiation, and cooperation
Reflection & Self-assessment:
In order to counteract the conflicting issues within PM Company, the teams must focus solely upon the current tasks rather than teamwork processes. When teams engage in spending time in reviewing processes, they increase their effectiveness in the long run. Reviews of communications amidst members may enable in identifying of deficiencies as well as addresses the ways to improve henceforth performances (Lucas, 2010). Teams may benefit from paying adequate consideration to social climate and providing adequate support to all members. The social context of teamwork generates much advanced work experience to team members that encourage high performances. Teamwork would prove to be highly beneficial for PM Company as it would enhance mutual support. Since members can depend upon others with shared objectives, they may attain assistance as well as encouragement to work on tasks. The support may motivate the people to achieve desired objectives and gain self-confidence. The concept of teamwork would impart high sense of accomplishment.
4. Work Performance:
Within the organization, process of performance evaluation needs to be frequently reviewed to assure effective administration and development purposes. Performance evaluation needs to be conducted by the company where decisions relating to work conditions of employee promotions, layofs, and rewards are to be made by higher authority. The process of performance evaluation is much focused upon enhancement of work performances of each team members and also improving abilities of the members with the aid of training sessions to train individual of the desired behavior in the work environment. The Company must introduce practices whereby managers of the firm emable employee participation within performance evaluation of employees. This is a challenging issue for an organization.
The basic cause to ensure performance management procedures function effectively is by means of strengthening the link amidst strategic business aims and that of daily actions. The process of effective setting of goals along with a process to track progress as well as identifying hurdles and contributing to increased success. Tracking of progress against performance objectives on a regular basis would provide adequate opportunities for recognizing as well as rewarding employees to achieve exceptional effort. This would contribute to increased productivity and job satisfaction. Employees always want to be successful, to excel in their jobs and make valuable contributions. For ensuring this, employees need a clear understanding of individual goals and that how they may fit larger settings. Clear visibility, company-wide employee appraisals and regular individual analysis help identifying corporate competencies gaps. With such precious data in hand, firms can identify training as well as development plans. When implemented effectively, best practices in performance management result in a wider range of advantages for employees, managers and the entire firm as a whole.
Most of the experienced organizational managers know quite well that training is most essential for team success. However, many often do not make the effort to understand the needs of individual members, even though it is the only means to ensure that their members have knowledge as well as skills they require for achieving performance objectives.
Need for assessing individual needs:
It is important to consider and assess individual employee needs because these form the basic foundation to ascertain the performance levels of the team members. Members are responsible for identifying certain specific needs or objectives. Then they accordingly adopt actions to achieve the desired needs and organizational goals. When individual needs are assessed and highlighted, better training sessions may be provided to them. In other words, right kind of training may be imparted to the right people. Apart from enhancing performance, this process saves resources, time, and money. This approach also enables adequate empowerment of employees and enhancing employee morale.
Employee developmental needs may be identified by following steps:
- Reviewing of job descriptions of each employees
Arranging for meetings with the employees (Grant, 2002)
- Conducting observations at work
- Collection of additional data
- Analyzing data
- Determining the necessary actions
Beba, U. (2014). The Need for Authentic Leadership: Stop and think about the new leadership skills needed today and how to adopt them. IESE Insight, (20), pp.6-6.
Briggs, A. (2003). Making a difference: the impact of leadership upon the ethos of sixth form colleges.Management in Education, 17(2), pp.22-23.
Bush, T. (2005). Editorial: Educational Leadership and Management: Making a Difference?.Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 33(1), pp.5-7.
Bush, T. (2012). Leadership in the Early Years: Making a Difference. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 40(3), pp.287-288.
Carver, J. (2002). Is there a fundamental difference between governance and management?. Board Leadership, 2002(62), pp.6-6.
Ethical and Regulatory Considerations in Prescribing RU-486. (2011). Virtual Mentor, 13(5), pp.299-303.
Grant, J. (2002). Learning needs assessment: assessing the need. BMJ, 324(7330), pp.156-159.
Hallinger, P. and Heck, R. (2010). Leadership for Learning: Does Collaborative Leadership Make a Difference in School Improvement?. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 38(6), pp.654-678.
Iltis, A. (2004). Costs to Subjects for Research Participation and the Informed Consent Process: Regulatory and Ethical Considerations. IRB: Ethics and Human Research, 26(6), p.9.
Ishii, R., Rohitarachoon, P. and Hossain, F. (2013). HRM Reform in Decentralised Local Government: Empirical Perspectives on Recruitment and Selection in the Philippines and Thailand. Asian Journal of Political Science, 21(3), pp.249-267.
Jain, D. (2014). Recruitment Model Rediscovered in Thirukkural: Its Relevance in Modern HRM. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 16(12), pp.56-61.
Landry, R. (2012). Ethical Considerations in Filing Personal Bankruptcy: A Hypothetical Case Study.Journal of Legal Studies Education, 29(1), pp.59-93.
Lowder, B. (n.d.). Five Dimensions of Effective Leadership: A Meta-Analysis of Leadership Attributes & Behaviors. SSRN Journal.
Lucas, S. (2010). Leadership is needed. BMJ, 340(mar24 3), pp.c1566-c1566.
Mahmood, M. (2014). Strategy, structure, and HRM policy orientation: Employee recruitment and selection practices in multinational subsidiaries. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, p.n/a-n/a.
Nuszbaum, M., Voss, A. and Klauer, K. (2013). Assessing Individual Differences in the Need for Interpersonal Touch and Need for Touch. Social Psychology, 45(1), pp.31-40.
P., A. and King, B. (2013). Transactional and Transformational Leadership: A Comparative Study of the Difference between Tony Fernandes (Airasia) and Idris Jala (Malaysia Airlines) Leadership Styles from 2005-2009. IJBM, 8(24).
Prosser, S. (2009). Leadership development: does it make a difference?. Br J Healthcare Management, 15(3), pp.1-29.
Schwetz, B. (2005). Toxicological Research Involving Humans: Ethical and Regulatory Considerations.Toxicological Sciences, 85(1), pp.419-421.
Slowther, A. (2010). Confidentiality in primary care: ethical and legal considerations. InnovAiT, 3(12), pp.753-759.
Timming, A. (2011). What do tattoo artists know about HRM? Recruitment and selection in the body art sector. Employee Relations, 33(5), pp.570-584.
Tumasjan, a. And strobel, m. (2010). Ethical leadership evaluations after moral transgression: social distance makes the difference. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2010(1), pp.1-6.
Wong, J. and Wong, R. (2004). Can Leadership Make a Difference?. Healthcare Management Forum, 17(3), pp.7-13.