New User? Start here.
Error goes here
At first the glucose in transformed into G6Pase consuming 1 molecule ATP. Parallel, Fructose ^ phosphate is transformed into 1, 6-biphosphate consuming another molecule of ATP. BPG obtained from transformation of glyceraldehydes 3 phosphate
BPG -> 3- phosphoglycerate = 2 Molecules of ATP
Phosphoenolpyruvaye transformed to pyruvate -> 2 Molecules of ATP
The pryruvate is transformed into reaction of acetyl CoA with carbon dioxide producing NADH.
Succinyl CoA is transformed into succinate -> 2 Molecules of ATP
The NADH produced in the pathway yields the following
2/3 Molecules per NADH -> 4/6 for 2 cytoplasmic NADH
Pyruvate Oxidation -> 3 molecules per NADH = 6 ATP molecules
2 molecules ATP per FADH x 2 FADH = 4 Molecules of ATP
3 molecules of ATP per NADH ( Krebs cycle) x 3 NADH = 18 molecules of ATP.
Total yield per mol of glucose = 38
Yield for 4 mol of input = 38 x 4 = 152
Glucose is metabolized in the human body and the primary form of storage in the body is glycogen which is found in the liver and the skeletal muscles of the body. There is a difference between the amounts of ATP production with the variation of site of metabolism (Hackmann and Firkins, 2015). The ATP synthesis will not take place in the muscle tissue. The liver is responsible for the maintenance of the optimum level of glucose in the blood stream. At the last step of the gluconeogenesis, the G6Pase catalyses the synthesis and governs the release of the glucose in the bloodstream (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2016). However, muscle tissue do not participate in glucose export hence they lack the G6Pase enzyme.
The oxidation process of the fuel molecules in the body namely amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates are completed through the process of the citric acid cycle. Acetyl Coenzyme A is the basic form of input of the fuel molecules in the cycle. This is the final pathway of oxidation and after transamination every amino acid enters this cycle. While entering the process are completely oxidized in the process (Qu, Lee and Boos, 2004). The carbohydrates input in this stage are in the form of pyruvate and acetyl coA. If there is any surplus of carbohydrates in the food intake of the body, these are transformed to neutral fat at this stage. The neutral fat thus produced does not take part in any metabolism activity but are stored in the adipose tissue. Many of these amino acids are converted so that they can take part in the gluconeogenesis through OAA. In addition to this, in this cycle, the fat is completely disintegrated and the net synthesis of carbohydrates from the fat is zero in this cycle. Most of the pathways are either catabolic or anabolic in nature (Taylor and Robinson, 2005). However, this is the only true pathway that is completely amphibolic in nature. The anaplerotic role of the cycle ensures that the concentration of 4 carbon units is maintained in the cells.
The molecule of GTP is not an equivalent molecule of ATP but the when the GTP is gathered in a triphospate group, the amount of energy built up is equivalent to the triphosphate group of ATP. Additionally, GTP has the ability of a phosphoral group into ADP to form an ATP. Hence, the GTP is considered equivalent to ATP.
ATP formation in the liver is through glycolysis which is a non aerobic process. This process breaks down the glucose into 3C compounds, pyruvate and lactate thereby forming ATP. Further in the process, the pyruvate dehydrogenase transforms the 3C compounds into 2C compound with the extraction and release of carbon di oxide (Zou, Ma and Wang, 2015). This is through the pathway of the citric acid cycle.
The overall equation is represented as follows
The preliminary step in the formation of ATP is the transformation of glucose in the blood into the cells. AT this step 4 ATPs and 2NADH are produced.
AT the next step, the pyruvate is oxidized in the mitochondria producing 2 ATPs and 8NADH as well as 2FADH2 .
Hence the total number of molecules generated in the process is as follows
6 Carbon dioxide molecules.
This way, 12 ATP is produced from one molecule input in the citric acid cycle.
Bioinfo.org.cn. (2016). [online] Available at: https://www.bioinfo.org.cn/ [Accessed 17 Jul. 2016].
Flurkey, W. (2010). Yield of ATP Molecules per Glucose Molecule. J. Chem. Educ., 87(3), pp.271-271.
Hackmann, T. and Firkins, J. (2015). Electron transport phosphorylation in rumen butyrivibrios: unprecedented ATP yield for glucose fermentation to butyrate. Front. Microbiol., 6.
Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. (2016). National Center for Biotechnology Information. [online] Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ [Accessed 17 Jul. 2016].
Qu, Q., Lee, S. and Boos, W. (2004). Molecular and biochemical characterization of a fructose-6-phosphate-forming and ATP-dependent fructokinase of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus litoralis. Extremophiles, 8(4).
Taylor, R. and Robinson, R. (2005). Quinoxaline Synthesis from α-Hydroxy Ketones via a Tandem Oxidation Process Using Catalysed Aerobic Oxidation. Synlett, (6), pp.1003-1005.
Zou, H., Ma, W. and Wang, Y. (2015). A novel process of dye wastewater treatment by linking advanced chemical oxidation with biological oxidation. Archives of Environmental Protection, 41(4).
To View this & another 50000+ free samples. Please put
your valid email id.
Earn back the money you have spent on the downloaded sample by uploading a unique assignment/study material/research material you have. After we assess the authenticity of the uploaded content, you will get 100% money back in your wallet within 7 days.
Get Moneyinto Your Wallet
Total 4 pages, 1 USD Per Page
*The content must not be available online or in our existing Database to qualify as
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:
My Assignment Help. (2017). Yield Of ATP Molecules Per Glucose Molecule. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/yield-of-atp-molecules-per-glucose-molecule.
"Yield Of ATP Molecules Per Glucose Molecule." My Assignment Help, 2017, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/yield-of-atp-molecules-per-glucose-molecule.
My Assignment Help (2017) Yield Of ATP Molecules Per Glucose Molecule [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/yield-of-atp-molecules-per-glucose-molecule[Accessed 28 September 2021].
My Assignment Help. 'Yield Of ATP Molecules Per Glucose Molecule' (My Assignment Help, 2017) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/yield-of-atp-molecules-per-glucose-molecule> accessed 28 September 2021.
My Assignment Help. Yield Of ATP Molecules Per Glucose Molecule [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2017 [cited 28 September 2021]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/yield-of-atp-molecules-per-glucose-molecule.
The respective sample has been mail to your register email id
* $5 to be used on order value more than $50. Valid for
We have sent login details on your registered email.
MyAssignmenthelp.com has assembled a team of extraordinarily talented and knowledgeable PhD qualified online dissertation experts to provide students required dissertation writing help in Canberra, Adelaide, Perth, Melbourne, Sydney and other parts of Australia. Students can buy dissertation online from us with three simple steps. Auditing dissertation help, history dissertation help, geography dissertation help, maths dissertation help are few popular services under our dissertation writing assistance.
1a. Clostridium tetani, a bacterium that can infect wounds exposed to soil or dirt is an endospore-forming, rod shaped bacterium that can cause tetanus. In Mary's case she had got an open wound when working in her garden and this could have exposed her wound to the soil and also to the bacterium C. tetani. Tetanus is caused due to two toxins released by the bacterium, tetanospasmin and tetanolysin, both of which are neurotoxins. There is...
(Marshall et al. 2014)
- Short term energy storage for metabolism
- Structure (cell walls & exoskeletons)
-Makes food more favorable
-Help cellular recognition process
Insulin synthesis and release
The synthesis of the insulin has a significant quantity in the beta cells of pancreas. The insulin mRNA can be translated as the single peptide while insertion in the endoplasmic reticulum, which generates the proinsulin. Fu, Gilbert and Liu (2013) mentioned that the proinsulin mainly is exposure to the particular endopeptidases that exercise C peptide. This help to generate mature form of t...
Media article 1:
Klein, A. 2017. Foxes seen climbing at night to track down and eat koalas Retrieved 10 May 2017, from https://www.newscientist.com/article/2120944-foxes-seen-climbing-trees-at-night-to-track-down-and-eat-koalas/
Journal paper 1: Mella, V.S., McArthur, C., Frend, R. and Crowther, M.S., 2017. Foxes in trees: a threat for Australian arboreal fauna?. Australian Mammalogy.
Conservation issue and significanc...
Provide your appraisal of the strengths and weaknesses of the presentation of the statistical material in Fox et al, 2010 against items 10, 12-17 of STROBE
The researchers used a sample of 4746 middle school and high school students. However, it is not clear how the sampling was done. The researchers have not mentioned the sampling techniques they applied, whether simple random, cluster, systematic or stratifie...
Are you confident that you will achieve the grade? Our best Expert will help you improve your grade
MSE 56700 Polymer Synthesis
HUBS1401 Human Bioscience
BY440 Stem Cell Biology
BIOH12012 Pathophysiology And Pharmacology
BIOL875 Contemporary Conservation In Australia
BIO101 Molecular And Cellular Biology
SCI3314 Current Issues In Biology
Just refer 5 friends to earn more than $2000.
After the successfull payment you will be redirected to the detail page where you can see download full answer button over blur text.You can also download from there.
Or you can also download from My Library section once you login.Click on the My Library icon
My Library page open there you can see all your purchased sample and you can download from there.
That's our welcome gift for first time visitors
It is too easy to create or access your own library, just enter your email and make your search
MyAssignmenthelp.com stores a huge
COLLECTION OF QUESTIONS AND SAMPLES, which you can refer to any time you want.
Every time you find something useful, you can save that using the bookmark tool. From the next time,
can access that from your personalized library.
With this feature, you get to create your own collection of documents. You get free
choose and bookmark any document you wish.
Accessing the collection of documents is absolutely easy. Once you bookmark a sample,
access its content with a few clicks on your mouse.
This personalized library allows you to get faster access to the necessary documents.
longer need to spend hours to locate the sample you need.
Finding a sample from a list of thousands is nothing less than spotting a needle in a
Personalizing your own library relieves you from that stress.
On APP - grab it while it lasts!
*Offer eligible for first 3 orders ordered through app!
ONLINE TO HELP YOU 24X7
OR GET MONEY BACK!
OUT OF 33845 REVIEWS
Received my assignment before my deadline request, paper was well written. Highly