The Munich Agreement for cession of the states of Czechoslovakia is also termed the Munich Betrayal. This was the agreement that was concluded in Munich on 30th of September in the year of 1938, by the countries Nazi Germany, United Kingdom, French Republic, and Italy. It was aimed providing cession of Sudeten German territories in Czechoslovakia to Germany. The agreement got widely celebrated in majority of Europe, as they hoped to prevent the war that Adolf Hitler was threatening to wage by means of Nazi Germany annexing Sudetenland, the western region of Czechoslovakia which is populated by over 3 million countrymen, most of whom being German speakers. Prior to the agreement Hitler had announced that this would be the final claim for territory made by him in Europe, and therefore it appeared to be a choice among war or appeasement. An emergency meeting occurred in Munich, Germany on 29th to 30th of September 1938 involving some major European powers and excluding Czechoslovakia or even the Soviet Union, who happened to be ally of both France as well as Czechoslovakia. The agreement quickly got reached as per the terms put forth by Hitler. Top leaders from Britain, France, Germany and Italy signed this agreement. Strategically, this Sudetenland posed of significant military importance to Czechoslovakia since majority of the border defences would be located there for protecting against any German attacks. The agreement among these four powers got signed in the middle of low scale conflicts called the German-Czechoslovak that was not officially declared by Germany but had started on 17 September 1938.
Hitler would previously start rearmament of Germany in utter defiance towards Treaty of Versailles as they retook control of Rhineland in 1936 and went on to annexing Austria in 1938. By now, Hitler grew determined of seizing Sudetenland, situated in Czechoslovakia though having a substantial chunk of German population as also key industrial resources. It soon became clear that he will do it by force if needed and therefore the Czech people on their own stood no chance in resisting Hitler’s aggression. It is learned that he had his generals informed as early as May of his intensions of smashing Czechoslovakia through military might in the coming days, although any of his confidants this impression that Hitler did not wish for general war at that point of time.
Chamberlain had visited Germany twice over in the month of September for discussions with Hitler in regards to the Czech situation, first in Berchtesgaden and then in Bad Godesberg, which is where Hitler would be demanding not just prompt annexation of the Sudetenland by Germany but also about every Germans living elsewhere across Czechoslovakia to be permitted in joining Hitler’s Third Reich. The Hungarian prime minister was told on 20th that Hitler was sure of the French as also of Britain not being able of doing anything effective, and the events only proved him right.
Similar to rest of Europe and including majority of the Germans, Chamberlain was of the view that almost anything would be preferable compared to repeat of first World War I from 1914 to 1918. That is where he failed to understand Hitler, whom he hoped would get appeased through appropriate concessions and neither Britain or the French could see any reasoning behind starting a war for preserving Czechoslovakia, the embers of which were only laid back in 1918. On the other hand, had their quest for peace come to a failure, Britain would need to buy time for rearming themselves and therefore obviously providing Germany more time in rearming also.
Hence not a single Czech representative got any invitation to this conference. Chamberlain had only asked the Czech ambassador in Berlin for arriving in Munich to play the role of an adviser and even he was barred from being in that same room with Hitler. On September 28th, at night the Czech government in a statement agreed in ceding Czech territories in which 50 or higher percentage of the total population happened to be German, but did sound a protest against demands of plebiscite in the areas that did not have German people in majority.
In Munich, Hitler got what he wished and that was domination of central Europe with German troops marching onto the Sudetenland at night on the 1st of October. Even a day before, the Czech government accepting the pact of Munich. It is then that General Sirovy, the Czech premier let their people know on radio of him experiencing among the most tragic moments in his life and regretted in fulfilling a very painful duty to have ever fallen upon him, something that was worse than death. Thar is the forces arraying against them are oblige them in recognizing their superiority and thus of acting accordingly. Josef Goebbels in Germany talked about the country walking on a thin tightrope above a dizzying abyss. The world being jubilant and Germany gaining back their prestige such that they can once again be considered a world power.
Based on the Munich agreement all of the territories predominantly belonging to Germany from Czechoslovakia needed to be handed over within 10th of October. Other parts of the country outside Czechoslovakia lay across Poland and Hungary. As a result, Czechoslovakia soon ceased to exist and left-over parts of Slovakia would become puppet states of Germany.
As Chamberlain was leaving Munich, Hitler had reportedly mocked the English statesman, saying if he attempts to interfere Hitler would kick him down. The British and French premiers however flew home in triumphant mood with warm welcomes from their respective citizens, who would feel massive relief that one more European war was just prevented. Chamberlain would arrive directly to Buckingham Palace appearing on balcony with Queen Elizabeth and George VI to cheers from the crowd under and next at Downing Street, where he announced it to the thronging people, that
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