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Axial Skeleton and it Structure

Referencing Styles : APA | Pages : 1

Axial Skeleton and it Structure

The axial skeleton is a part of the skeleton which is comprised of bones of the head and a trunk of the vertebrates. The word axial is derived from the word “axis” and also supports the fact that the bones of vertebrate are located close to or along the central axis of the body. The human skeleton is composed of six parts from top the skull bones, the ossicles of the middle ear, the hyoid bone, in the middle the rib cage, the vertical column and the sternum. The appendicular skeleton together with the axial skeleton forms the complete skeleton. The axial skeleton holds the weight from the head, the trunk and with the upper extremities to the lower extremities which is at the hip joints.

The Skull

The axial skeleton is responsible for the straight and upright position of the human body. The skull is the most important and significant parts of the body as it protect the brain and gives structure to the face. The skull is comprised of 22 bones, out of 22, eight bones forms the cranial activity which helps to enclose the brain and also acts as an attachment site for the head mucles and the neck. The eight bones are the frontal bones, two parietal bones, two temporal bones, occipital bones, sphenoid bones and the ethmoid bone. The auditory ossicles present in the middle ear helps transmit sounds from outside as vibration to fluid-filled cochlea.

The Thoracic Cage

Around 366 skeletal muscles are acting upon the axial skeleton which positions the spine, which allows the thoracic cage for breathing purpose and the head which controls the complex and even minute facial movements. An adult human body has 12 pairs of ribs which work between the thoracic cage and sternum. The ribs act as a protective cage around the lungs and heart. There are seven pairs of ribs that both attach from the vertebrae to a cartilage attachment on the sternum and two that is attached to the vertebrae but are free as they have attachment. The sternum which is also known as the breastbone which is structured as a long flat bone, located at the chest anterior.

The Vertebral Column

It is known that most of the body weight is located at the back of the spinal column with large amount of ligaments which is attached to it and also has the erector spinae muscles which gives the curvy spine structure to the spine. The spine is composed of 5 different parts cervical spine and has 7 vertebrae which make up the neck, the seven cervical vertebrae together makes up the upper part neck and runs down the shoulder, the thoracic spine is comprised 12 vertebrae, the lumbar spine is composed of 5 vertebrae which makes the lower back, sacrum which consist of 5 bones which are stuck or fused together and lastly the coccyx is composed of 4 tiny bones which is used as tail. The seven cervical vertebrae together makes up the upper part neck and runs down the shoulder. The vertebral body is found with a large hole generally at the center from where the nerves of the spinal are allowed to pass. The length of the vertebral column is approximately 71 cm or 28 inches in male adults which are curved and hence can be seen from side view. The sacral and thoracic curves are concave in nature whereas the lumbar and the cervical curves are convex in nature. The strength and flexibility come from the arched curvature f the vertebral column which allows it to absorb shocks like a spring. The intervertebral disc is made up of fibrous cartilage and lies between the adjacent vertebral bodies which are from the second cervical vertebra to the sacrum. The disc are the part of a single joint which allows movement of spine and thus acting as a cushion for absorbing external and internal shocks from the usual activities like running and walking. The intervertebral discs are also responsible for ligaments to bend the vertebrae together. When people age, their bodily elasticity is reduced and this is due to hardness of nucleus pulpous which is present in the inner part of the intervertebral disc. The absorbing capability of shock is reduced as the bodily elasticity is reduced.

The locomotion of lower limb and the manipulation of objects in the environment the upper limb, of the axial skeleton are responsible by the appendicular skeleton which is made up of 126 bones in the body.

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