An appendicular skeleton is the specific portion of the skeleton of vertebrates that comprise of the bones, which eventually support the appendages. This appendicular skeleton involves the skeletal element in the limbs and supporting pelvic and pectoral girdle. Amongst the 206 bones within human skeleton, this appendicular skeleton consists of 126. The functionality is included within the locomotion of axial skeleton as well as manipulation of the objects within the environment. The locomotion is done for the lower limbs and the manipulation of objects is done for the upper limbs. This appendicular skeleton substantially forms during proper development from the cartilage by the procedure of endochondral ossification. The entire appendicular skeleton is being sub divided into six major regions, which are shoulder girdles, arms and forearms, hands, pelvis, thighs and legs and finally feet and ankles.
The number of bones in shoulder girdles is 4, 2 on the scapula and two on the right and left clavicle. The number of bones in arms and forearms is 6, two on forearm radium, two on ulna and remaining two on the right and left humerus. The number of bones in hands is 54, ten on the distal phalanges, eight on intermediate phalanges, ten on proximal phalanges, 10 on meta carples and finally sixteen on right and left wrist carpales. The number of bones in pelvis is 2 bones on the right and left hip bone. The number of bones in thighs and legs is 8, two on the right and left femur thigh, two on the knees, two on fibula leg and finally two on tibia. The number of bones in feet and ankles is 52, fourteen on right and left ankle tarsals, ten on distal phalanges, ten on intermediate phalanges, ten on proximal phalanges and 10 on metatarsals. It is extremely important and significant to realize that through the anatomical variation, it is quite common for this specific skeleton to have numerous bones of accessory such as lumbar rib, extra lumbar vertebrae, cervical rib and sutural bone in skull. Unlike axial skeleton, this appendicular skeleton is completely unfused. It allows for a greater range of motion.
The appendicular skeleton majorly supports all types of functions and attachment of the lower or upper limbs of a human body. The human appendicular skeleton is eventually composed of the bones of these upper limbs, pelvic girdle, pectoral girdles and even lower limbs. This pectoral girdle majorly acts as a point of attachment of several upper limbs of the human body and the upper limbs comprise of the hand, wrist, forearm and arm. The lower limb subsequently include thigh, feet and legs after supporting the total weight of the human body before absorbing these resulting forces from locomotion. The fourth type of bone is pelvic girdle, which is solely responsible for locomotion or movement. This is even responsible to attach the lower limbs of the human body. This appendicular skeleton pertains to an appendage or a limb.
The axial skeleton is present in the bones of the head and trunk of a human body and the clavicle is the collar bone that is prominent bone at the top of the chest within neck and shoulder. Another part of the appendicular skeleton is the scapula, in which either of the two large, flat bones for forming the back of the shoulder. The fourth part is the articulate, which helps to form a joint or subsequent connection by the joints. Since the appendicular skeleton comprises of hip bones, shoulder bones and limb bones, there are some of the major and the most significant functions of this skeleton. The first and the foremost function is locomotion by the help of legs. Terrestrial locomotion has been evolved as the animals getting adapted from both aquatic to terrestrial environments. This type of locomotion subsequently raises various issues for the reason of reduced friction and getting replaced by the total effects of gravity.
There are 3 distinctive locomotion forms for the human body, which are legged, limbless locomotion and finally rolling. The first and the foremost form of locomotion is legged locomotion. This movement is completed by utilizing appendages. The second important form of locomotion is limbless locomotion, which is being done moving without the legs and primarily with the body itself as the propulsive structure. The final form of locomotion is rolling that refers to the fact of rotating the body over a substrate. The next important function of the appendicular skeleton is attachment of leg and hand muscles. This particular function is extremely important as this type of attachment eventually ensures that the human body is reacting to all types of complexities. The third functionality is the attachment of hands on shoulders and legs on the hips. Another distinctive function of the appendicular skeleton is to balance the total body weight on the hip bones. This type of balance is required for making sure that hip bone is able to carry the weight of the bones such as ribs, scapula, radius, sacrum, pelvis and vertebral column. Some of the core and distinctive functionalities of the fore limbs are also present for this appendicular skeleton.
There are some of the major and important parts of the appendicular skeleton responsible for the movement. The first and the foremost part is pectoral girdle bone that provides the subsequent points of attachment of these upper limbs to axial skeleton. This skeleton comprises of collarbone or clavicle within the anterior and scapula in posterior. These S shaped bones and clavicles majorly position the arms on body after lying horizontally across front of chest or thorax. These distinctive clavicles are present just above the first rib. The scapula is flat and triangular bone, which is situated at the back of the pectoral girdle. The scapula eventually supports these muscles that cross the shoulder joints. The spine runs from the scapula’s back and it is an excellent example of bony protrusion, which helps to facilitate a wider area of attachments for muscles till bone.
The next important part of the skeleton is the upper limb. This specific limb comprises of thirty bones within three regions, which are the arm from shoulder to elbow, the hand and wrist and the forearm from ulna and radius. The humerus can be stated as the largest as well as the longest bone of the upper limb. This humerus helps in articulating with the scapula at the respective shoulder with the forearm at elbow. The radius is located along with the thumb side of forearm and it articulates with humerus at elbow. The second part of forearm is ulna that is situated on the medial aspect of forearm and is much longer than radius. Both ulna and radius articulate with carpal bones that enables the variable degree of rotation of carpus in terms of long axis of the limb. This hand involves the eight bones of wrist, fourteen bones of phalanges and five bones of metacarpus.
Another important part is pelvic girdle. It attaches to the low limbs of axial skeleton and it is solely responsible to bear the weight of body and even for locomotion. This pelvic girdle is safe and securely attached to axial skeleton by stronger ligaments. This pelvic girdle even has deep sockets with the robust ligaments for securely attaching femur to the specific body. It is being strengthened by the two large hip bones and these hip bones are formed by fusion of three distinctive pairs of bones, which are pubis, ischium and ilium. Other parts are lower limbs and upper limbs. These limbs are much thicker or stronger than bones of upper limbs for the requirement to support the total weight of the human body with resulting forces from locomotion.
The anatomy of appendicular skeleton is much complex in respect to the other parts of the body. The appendicular skeleton involves each and every limb bone after inclusion of bones, which unite every limb with the respective axial skeleton. The bones, which attach every upper limb into axial skeleton eventually form the pectoral girdles or shoulder girdles. It comprises of two bones of clavicle and scapula. The collarbone or clavicle is an S shaped bone that is situated on each side of the shoulder. The lateral end of clavicle articulates and joins with scapula only above the shoulder joints. The human being can easily and promptly palpate and feel with the fingers as well as the complete length of the clavicle. This axial skeleton eventually forms centralized axis of the human body before consisting of the skull, thoracic cage and vertebral columns. The appendicular skeleton mainly comprises of pelvic and pectoral girdles, bones of feet and hands and even limb bones. After following the clavicle, the human being could palpate out of the bone tip and from that point, the person can move his back across the posterior shoulder.
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