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Why The Mongols Were So Effective During The 13th And 14th Centuries

Referencing Styles : Harvard | Pages : 1
  • University: London Metropolitan University
  • Country: GB

Assimilation of training, discipline, tactics, and intelligence with a constant adaptation of new tactics provided the army of Mongol the savage edges. This helped them to fight against the heavier and slower armies of those times. As they lost some battles, they were found to be returning to fight again the other day and win in the second chance. The aspects that the Middle Eastern and European armies saw as weakness ere the actual strengths for the Mongol army. Further, their smaller horses were much agile than their heavy counterparts. Besides, the light compound bow utilized by them has high power and range. The arrows could penetrate the plate armour when they are at close distance. In the following table, the various reasons for them to be so efficient during the 13th and 14th centuries are highlighted.


 They used to start riding from an early age. Again they began hunting as they could hold their blow. The people and Mongol horses were of tough nature, sturdy and agile having high endurance. The army continually trained their troops in diversionary tactics, formations and rotations. Moreover, they used to train for various situations as they could be able to think that they can react quickly and assure any tactics of the enemies.


 Their army has been mainly the mounted archers that have bee utilizing the compound bow that was made of horns, sinew and woods. Moreover, the range of the bow has been unmatched during the accuracy and for force. The archers were able to shoot in any direction and also behind. Thus the archers were helpful for many tactics of Mongol battlefields. Further, they were ridding for encircling the enemy to rain arrows among them. Thus they could kill many horses and men from distances.


 The Mongol soldier fought with strict discipline. All the men were subjected to that, starting from the generals to the lowest army men. The discipline, regimen, super intelligence and leadership made the soldiers an effective and unconquerable force.

The breakup of the tribal unity

 Here, Genghis Khan intended that the army stays loyal to him and never to the tribal leaders. Here, he broke up all the tribes as he assigned the men with different units in the army. This is to assure the primary loyalty to the units and to him. There he broke the tribes as he assigned the army to different units in the army. This is to assure the primary loyalty to the units and to hm. Here, he organized the army through the decimal system as per the groups of 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000. The leaders have been at every level. Here, all the unit could make a fight at the unit level and in assimilation to other units. This can be without any type of constant supervision.

Mobility and speed

 The warriors could ride 60 to 100 miles per day. This has been with the unheard speed at those times. Every man consisted of 4 to 5 horses travelling with the army such that they are able to switch the fresh horse very often. Their ponies were smaller and very quick. They could love off all the sparest grasses. Their horses consisted of high endurances and have been able to run for many miles despite any tiring. The Mongols used to undertake any measures needed or defeating the enemies. This included the guerilla tactics, subterfuge and deceit. Their common tactic has been to tire the horses of the opponents intentionally.


 Their cross boss and bows were best at that time and composed of compound materials. These took many years to manufacture. They kept Chinese engineering elements that took many years of manufacturing.

Public relations

 They used to treat the surrendering populations very well. They favoured the merchants economically and the poor farmers over the elites. Hence, the common men were well disposed towards them. They made instances of opponents who could fight back. They never hesitated to brutally torture and slay those who could take any field against them. Additionally, they deceived the merchants and commoners to size the army. These were sized modesty and led the opponents in believing that they have a high force of fighting or a “Horde”. This intimidates the enemies and surrounding populaces. It also led to tactical errors on the part of the enemies. The enemy armies also wished many unskilled fighters and rather they encountered the sophisticated and smaller forces of fighting.

Military Intelligence Mismatch

 The data collection methods of the Mongols has been highly strong. Here, the merchants could gain benefits from the Mongol expansions. The merchants have been eagerly providing data about the enemies of them. As the merchants came to know about the ruling geography and classes of the future territories, this shared information was valuable. Nevertheless, the opponents of Mongols knew mainly what that had been told to them by Mongol PR. In surrender, they could be well treated as they could fight they might never just defeated and annihilated.

Strong growth of the economy in the conquered sectors

  They replaced the ruling elites at the areas conquered. Thus they subsequently lowered the burdens of taxes on merchants, artisans and farmers. Moreover, the Mongols encouraged trade through deploying secured, easily travel-able routes of trades around Asia. Thus they allowed secured trade foe the initial time in history. This was between Europe, the Muslim world, Persia, East Asia and China. Since they manage a huge area of land, the lowering of taxes led to the rise in the revenue system and permitted strong logistical support.

Supply and logistics

 Their forces remained well supplied from the living off the land. They maintained relatively smaller fighting forces. They encouraged the merchant traders at the conquered sectors and a huge amount of horses regarding logistical support for the campaigns. Besides, they had stronger communication between the forces by utilizing relays of riders.

Espirit de Corps

 Fighters of Mongol units grew n plains as nomads. They were accustomed to think in an independent way and resolve issues. They developed strong endurances while moving with excellent horsemanship with the tradition of respecting wise authority.


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