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Define Summative And Formative Assessment With Examples

Referencing Styles : Harvard | Pages : 1
  • Course Code: MAN6712
  • Course Title: Birmingham
  • University: Newcastle Business School
  • Country: GB

1. Summative Assessment:

This type of assessment is spread out and occurs after every few weeks, months, or once in a year. It is like a tool to help evaluate the effectiveness of programmes, school or institutional improvement, alignment of curriculum or students placement in a specific programme.(formal and legal process, basis for employment decisions, at the end of a specified time period, big picture of job performance, focuses on outcomes and accountability).

Summative tests are usually given at the end of a course or semester to assess what has been learnt and how well it was learned.it could be used at the end of a unit of instruction when purpose is to grade the students.

Summative assessment is more product oriented and assesses the final product unlike formative assessment, the aim of summative assessment is not to monitor the progress of the students during instruction but to assess of grade the overall performance of the students to determine the extent to which the instructional objective have been achieved and help the teachers to do course evaluation. There are certain benefits of summative assessment, which include providing information for promotions. and providing information to plan for professional development.

The purpose of summative evaluation is to assess the success in reaching its stated goals. Summative assessment as a progressive evaluation frequently addresses many questions like it raises questions about to what extent the goal has been achieved? Or whether the course Was fruitful? What were the drawbacks of the course?

Examples of summative assessment:

Final projects (portfolio, research paper), chapter and unit tests, semester tests(midterm and final tests), standardized tests, college admissions test, end of course evaluation.

Formative Assessment:-

Formative evaluation is that evaluation which is conducted with the objective of modifying performance. It is conducted during the implementation phase to check whether implementation is being done according to plan or not. It enables the learner to understand their progress in learning their weaknesses and to take the remedies measure to correct their leaning it provides support and feedback to learner to improve their ongoing learning, this assessment comprises to all those activity design to motivate to in hands understanding and to provide learner with an indication to their progress. (the heart of development supervision, an outgoing process, authentic evaluation, not used for employment decisions)

The nature of formative assessment can be observed in classroom situation where individual differences exist in learning and the quality of learning because student’s pace of learning is different. The conformed time within which a certain amount of learning has to take place varies from learner to learner. In order to provide information regarding quantity, quality, pace and amount formative assessment is must. This feedback is seen related to the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domain of the learning. The formative assessment provides feedback not only to the student but also to the teacher; it helps them to know about the effective compassion to the course and to check whether specific objectives are archive properly or not. if we will talk about its nature, the nature of formative assessment is feedback oriented. It provide feedback to the learner to monitor the progress of learning either at an assumed rate of learning or at their own rate of learning depending upon the individual differences. Formative tests measure the student’s learning levels against the standard set up in the test. The effectiveness of testing lies in revealing what has been learnt by the learner correctly or whether standard level of achievement has been achieved.

Formative assessment is therefore not very meaningful in terms of assigning marks to learners and some experts tend to disregard the marks as they believe that this type of assessment becomes more meaningful when grades are given instead of marks.

More success is achieved when the results of the tests are discussed with students and their weaknesses are identified and remedial measures are suggested later on. Generally such formative assessments are conducted in the form of oral test at the end of unit for their mastery and acquisition ability.

The benefits of formative assessment is Effects growth and transformation, provides documentation for a summative evaluation, provides timely feedback that can impact practices immediately, supports a collaborative relationship.

The purpose of formative assessment: To get information on the strengths and weaknesses of the learners on the part of an individual. It determines the degree of mastery of a given learning task and also helps to identify that part of the task which has not been mastered. Providing feedback both to the teacher and learner about success or failure in mastering specific skills or components of the program constitutes an essential part of the teaching learning process. The other purpose is to make it possible to point out weaknesses of the program and to identify those learners who need remedial teaching. The main emphasis of formative evaluation is not to certify but to help both teacher and learner to improve their teaching-learning process. Again, the purpose of formative evaluation is to deal with information which will determine whether a student has learnt to define, interpret, translate and apply the principle of the content or not.

Differences between summative assessment and formative assessment:

The difference between Summative Assessment and formative assessment applies not only to education but too many other fields as well. Formative assessment delivers information during the institutional process and before the summative assessment. Summative assessment is related to time and level for assessing learning that is how much learning has taken place in a particular time and the level of students, in particular course/ curriculum and school. Formative assessment is a tool in the hand of a teacher to monitor student’s progress in anon- threatening supportive environment. It provides regular feedback, give chance for student’s improvement; on the other hand summative evaluation produces enormous stress and anxiety among students, because it carried out at the end of learning. The difference between the formative and summative function of assessment is important because if affects the process by which evaluation is carried out. The summative evaluation is more likely to be responsive to the needs and requirements of the learners. There two evaluations differ in instrumentation, research control and generalizability.

In case of formative evaluation, data tend to be collected through observation, questionnaires, interview, research control and generalizability is not a major concern over here. In contrast summative evaluation, data tend to be collected with standardized techniques having high validity and reliability, research control and generalizability of results are built into the design of the summative evaluation.

Formative assessment is a tool in the hand of a teacher to monitor students’ progress in a non- threatening supportive environment. It provides regular feedback, give chance for student’s improvement, on the other hand summative evaluation produces enormous stress and anxiety among students, because it is carried out at the end of learning. The difference between the formative and summative function of evaluation is important because if affects the process by which evaluation is carried out.

Formative evaluation is an in house work, whose job is to help the learners to know their progress from time to time, here member of the team work both as developers and evaluators. Summative evaluation is an end work of course and is usually done by an external evaluator who should not be associated with the development team in order to avoid being biased.

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