An ontological argument refers to argument regarding god’s existence and therefore uses ontology. When arguments fall under the ontological category they discuss about god’s state of existence. In order words it can be said that these arguments begin with a theory called the priori theory about the universe organization. If the structure exists and is true then there must be reasons to explain about the existence of gods. The first argument was introduced by the western tradition and was proposed in the work called Proslogion by Anselm. He defined god as a being having existence and no greater can be conceived than the being. He said that it is important to have the existence of this being in the minds of all the people no matter if they believe in this being or not. He argued that god has existence as he is a great being. His arguments were further supported by many other authors such as a French author called Rene Descartes. He however provided various variations to the argument and all were centred around the argument that god’s existence can be inferred from an idea of being perfectly supremely. However this concept was argued against in the 18th century and he said that the concept of being supremely perfect is vague and cannot be defined properly. A more formal argument was recently made by Kurt Godel. Many Islamic philosophers gave various other arguments. There is much discussion and interest on this concept since its proposal. This concept has got the attraction of most of the western philosophers and they have found it interesting.
However, there have been a lot of criticism and objections related to the same. The first objection was made by Anselm’s Contemporary. He said that the ontological argument can be used to bring anything into existence and he said the same using the island example. It was proven the ontological argument many ties has absurd consequences and the same was dome using many parodies. Authors like Thomas Aquinas he rejected the argument on the basis that humans cannot know the nature of god and therefore there cannot be any existence. David hume also rejected the concept of god’s existence because he though there are no evidential reasoning. Further critics was made on the basis that there was false premises and it was predicate. He said that something existence does not add any meaning to the being essence. The definition of the term ontological arguments was given by Immanuel Kant. He differentiated the concept of ontological argument which is basically concerned with being with various arguments that were physio-theoretical. According to him, the concept of these arguments was dependent upon the theory of priori. Graham Oppy was of the view that there was no such reason to depart from the traditional concept of ontological arguments. However, he went on to define the term ontological argument as something that is analytical, existence of the priori theory and other necessary premises and therefore said that god existed. However, he also said that all the characteristics of the traditional view of ontological arguments are missing in the modern ontological arguments. In his work, he said that better definition of ontological arguments would mean entirely internal to the worldview. He further sub divided the same into different parts which included- definitional, modal, conceptual and various others. These divisions were done based on the qualities of premises. He found that definitions are invoked by arguments that are definitional. On the other hand, possession of concepts and ideas was invoked by the arguments that are conceptual in nature. The major division was on the basis of existence that was invoked by the Meinongian and he said that people who have various experiences of god are the ones who believe in his existence. Oppy’s study was criticized by William Craig since he felt that the concept cannot classify because it was too vague.
In order to understand the concept in a better way various examples can be used. In case of the movies also such as the start war movies, there is a magical force that is a field of energy created by all the human beings and this concept goes beyond our natural law. However, in the prequels it has been defined in amore better way and in a more scientific way. The tiny microorganisms are called midi chlorians who exist in the bloodstream of human beings and this is where the difference for ontology is made. This is so because it brings a new kind of being into existence and also brings changes to Meta physics.
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