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Overview of Anschluss in WW2

Referencing Styles : Harvard | Pages : 1

Anschluss refers to an annexation of the country of Austria into Nazi Germany on March 12 in the year of 1938. Before the annexation of Anschluss, there always had been a strong support from the people of all types of backgrounds in both Germany and Austria. This is not only for Nazis and for a union of two countries. A subsequent desire for such union has formed an integral part of Nazi’s movement called, “Heim ins Reich” for the core purpose of bringing ethnic Germans to Greater Germany and outside Nazi Germany. In the early days, Nazi Germany had to provide major support to the Austrian Nazi Party or Austrian National Socialist Party in the bid of seizing power from the government of Austria’s Fatherland Front. The entire idea and concept of an Anschluss has started only unifying Germany after being excluded from Austria. This Germany unification has ensured that the respective German Austrians are being excluded from the Prussian dominated German empire in the year of 1871. After the end of WW1 or World War 1 and the subsequent failure of the empire of Austro Hungary.

In the year of 1918, the newly made Republic of Austria Germany had attempted for forming a union with the country of Germany, however the Treaty of Versailles and Treaty of Saint Germain have forbade both union as well as continuous utilization of the specific name of German Austria or even stripped Austria of few of the distinctive territories like Sudetenland. The entire idea to group each and every German into any one distinctive nation state had been the major concern since 19th century from subsequent dissolution of Roman Empire during the year of 1806. This phenomenon had continued till the breaking up of German Confederation during the year of 1866. The country of Austria had desired for the Greater Germany solution, whereas every German state will get united under the proper leadership of Habsburgs or German Austrians. This particular solution should have eventually included each and every German state with inclusion of non German regions in Austria, however in that scenario, Prussia would have to take the second position. The controversy, broadly termed as dualism, had dominated the diplomacy of Prussia and Austria as well as the politics of every German state within the middle nineteenth century.

During the year of 1866, this feud had come to the end of German war, where the Prussians have defeated these Austrians after excluding German Austrians and Austria from the country of Germany. The statesman of Prussia, Otto von Bismarck had formed the entire confederation of North Germany after inclusion of remaining states of Germany and further expansion of Prussian power. Bismarck have utilized the war of France and Prussia as a method of convincing other states in Germany like Kingdom of Bavaria for siding with Prussia against Second French Empire. Leadership of Bismarck is enhanced on the basis of German empire and the newly formed Kingdom of Prussia that excluded Austria. After ensuring a major domination of a united Germany from Prussia, the subsequent exclusion of Austria would even ensure that Germany will be having a substantial protestant.

Anschluss had a major impact on World War 2 as well, similar to World War 1. Austria is the German based nation that has its roots, which connect it with the Germany going back to Roman Empire. During the middle of 19th century, these Germans and Austrians started to consider about a union. After the end of World War 1, Austria, Hungary and Germany were on the distinctive verge of defeat. The groups of Pan German in Austria have campaigned for subsequent annexation of Austria to Germany, before getting success in the year of 1918 as soon as the countries of Austria and Germany were being proclaimed. However, these Allies of World War I eventually opposed the union before outlawing them in the year of 1919. The Treaty of Versailles and the Treaty of Saint Germain en Laye substantially prohibited economic as well as political union of Austria by considering Germany. A massive harshness of the two treaties bred major discontent in the pro German Austrians by inclusion of Adolf Hitler. Several Austrians have agreed or hoped for one Anschluss with the country of Germany.

The other citizens were content in remaining an independent union and were a wary of Anschluss as soon as Nazi parties came into power within Germany. When Nazi party came into power in the year of 1933, Hitler had made plans in incorporation of the homeland into German state. When the Austrian officials were being pressured by Hitler, the Austrian Nazis were ordered to start a terror campaign within Austria for forcing the union. The respective efforts of Nazis subsequently horrified the Austrians before stoking nationalism or rallying support to Austrian Chancellor, Dollfuss. The Austrian Nazis have led a coup that severely failed, however it led in success of assassination of Dollfuss. The new Austrian Chancellor took the decision of cooperation with Hitler for country invasion. During the year of 1936, the Chancellor have signed the agreement between Germany and Austria that needed foreign policy of Austria to be consistent with Germany and with the consideration that Nazis would not be allowed to hold public office within Austria.

In the mean time, the strength of Nazi had substantially changed the mind of Mussolini before joining Rome Berlin Axis with Hitler in the year of 1936. The Chancellor had appointed an Austrian Nazi before realizing that World War 2 was near. During the few days in March 1938, the Anschluss was being completed. A desperate chancellor then called for a referendum for letting the Austrian people decide whether they wished to remain independent or support Germany. Thus, Hitler demanded that the present chancellor should resign and hand over his power to another chancellor. The Germans started his marching completely unopposed into Austria. As a result, the government of Austria revoked the Treaty of Saint Germain, hence completing Anschluss in WW2.

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