The Byzantine Empire sometimes known as the Eastern Roman Empire. During Late Antiquity and middle Ages, it was mainly the Greek speaking continuation of the eastern half of Roman Empire. The capital city of Byzantine was Constantinople. Romans lived in the cities throughout the empire, and the capital of Roman was Rome. Rome originally started as a small settlement on the Palatine Hill. This had grown into a greatest city of the ancient world. The new Rome refers to the city of Constantinople, after the old Byzantium was renamed as Constantinople and became the capital of the Roman Empire.
As the Byzantine Empire came from the fall of the Roman Empire, their culture, religion and location were somewhat similar and also had some differences. This shaped the Byzantine Empire what it became. The form of religion of Byzantine and Roman Empire was very different. Byzantine Empire was a monotheistic society. This means they believed in only one god. The Byzantine Empire was a Christian one and it was known for warring with the Muslims. The Roman Empire had pagan religion. From the beginning Roman religion was polytheistic that means believing or worshiping of more than one god. Rome introduced both Greek gods as well as many foreign cults in the Roman Empire.
Byzantine Empire had a weakness that the Byzantines had no protection from invading tribes. After the death of Alexander the great, no Roman was there who could take the part after Alexander and then the empire started to fall apart.
In Byzantine Empire, the citizens speaks in Greek language in the eastern part of the Mediterranean and Greek culture was followed. The Western Roman Empire was a Latin Civilization, in that part only Latin was spoken and Latin culture was followed.
The strength of Roman Empire was that they regulated Military service. Roman army would prosecute seasonal campaigns against largely local adversaries. Roman military units of the period were largely homogeneous and was highly regulated. The Roman army was the largest and meanest terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome. This was one of the main reason that Roman Empire became so powerful with the help of military forces. The Byzantine Empire was involved in trading and all the citizens were engaged to commerce their business. This led others to enter into the Byzantine Empire to trade. Byzantium acted as frontier between the Persian and Greek world.
The Byzantine Empire was the direct legal continuation of the eastern legal continuation of eastern half of the Roman Empire following the division of the Roman Empire in 395. Byzantine Empire was a monarchy, the first monarch was Constantine I, and last monarch was Constantine XI. The formation of monarchy was on 11 May 330. It was abolished on 29th May 1453. Roman was initially republic in the first century BC. But two thousand years ago it could not rule by itself. It took two men to wrestle Rome back from chaos and turned the republic into an empire.
Caesar refused the proposal and chose to march his army on Rome, which no Roman Empire was ever permitted to do. This war was a four- year long politico military struggle, it was fought in Italy, Illyria, Greece, Egypt, Africa, and Hispania. Romans had civil war, as the government of Roman was no longer feasible to govern the policies and provinces from the centre seat of Rome. So the Emperor divided the empire into Eastern Empire which was governed by Byzantine; later called Constantinople. The other half was the Western Empire which was governed from Rome. The Byzantine Empire had threats from outside empires. As they were trading outside the country, many emperors could easily enter the Byzantine Empire to rule it.
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