Brachioradialis muscles refers to the muscle of the forearm that helps in the flexion movement of the forearm muscles of the hands of the human body. Apart from that, this muscle is also capable of supination and pronation as per the position of the forearm. This muscle is one of the muscles that helps in the flexion process of the forearm. This muscle is a superficial fusiform muscle present in the forearm region that flexes the forearm at the elbow region of the human hand. This muscle is originated along with the proximal two-thirds of the humerus lateral supracondylar ridge and inserts into the lateral surface of the styloid process of the radius. It is also evident that this brachioradialis muscle is one and only muscle of the human body that initiates from the distal end of one bones and then the muscle ends in the distal part of the another bone. While analysing the anatomical position of the brachioradialis muscle, it is observed that, this brachioradialis muscle forms a lateral boundary of the cubital fossa and thereby causes formation of the muscle mass. This muscle mass is often collided with the anterolateral forearm of the hand.
In the mid prone position of the elbow of the hand, the brachioradialis muscle is initiated and very specifically, from the forearm pronation, forearm supination, and flexion of the elbow this muscle is originated. Although, this muscle is a posterior compartment muscle, still this muscle is an accessory flexor muscle. Moreover, during the process of the pronation, this muscle plays an active role during the pronation process.
The upper limb musculature starts from the dorsolateral somite cells which move into the limb around the fourth week to form the muscles. During the lengthening of the buds, the muscle is divided into extensor and flexor components determined by connective tissue derived from the lateral plate mesoderm. The zone of polarizing activity at the posterior border of the upper limb secretes sonic hedgehog to control anterior-posterior patterning. After forming the primary rami along the ventral aspect, the newly formed structure migrates into mesenchyme. The radial nerve originated from both of the dorsal segment can innervate the brachioradialis muscle.
In the brachioradialis muscle, the radial recurrent artery supplies the blood flow and this artery also contributes to an anastomotic network around the lateral forearm muscles and joint of the elbow. The lymphatic drainage system of the brachioradialis muscle is the upper part of the limb lymph system and comprising of deep and superficial lymphatic vessels. The superficial vessels around the basilic vein go to the cubital lymph nodes, which are proximal to the medial epicondyle of the humerus. Vessels around the cephalic vein go to the axillary lymph nodes. The deep lymphatic vessels also drain lymph from the brachioradialis and follow the major deep veins, eventually terminating in the humeral axillary lymph nodes.
The brachioradialis muscle is primarily innervated by the radial nerves. The radial nerve exists in between the brachialis and brachioradialis anteriorly. Brachioradialis is the first muscle that is innervated and after the nerve injury this muscle is the first muscle to be healed. The superficial radial nerve innervates distally in the forearm under the brachioradialis and this particular nerve is lateral to the radial artery. Wartenberg syndrome occurs when the superficial radial nerve is compressed by the brachioradialis and extensor carpi radialis longus tendon during forearm pronation. This type of radial disease is mainly associated with the sports injury. The superficial radial nerve is compressed by the scissoring action of the brachioradialis and extensor carpi radialis longus during forearm pronation and by fascial bands at the subcutaneous plane exit site.
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