A hypotonic solution is any type of solution that has lower osmotic pressure in comparison to the other solutions. In biological fields, this mainly refers to the solution that has less amount of solute and more amount of water than the other solutions. “Imagine you and two other people are waiting for an elevator in the lobby of a building. When the elevator doors open, you see there are 20 people crammed into that tiny space. Who in their right mind would try and fit on that elevator? Not you! There are just too many people in there. The doors close, and you wait for the next one. This is basically what happens when two solutions meet in biology - the two solutions compare their respective crowdedness to each other, and then each solution reacts accordingly.”
Sometimes one of the solutions has more stuff crammed into them than the other. We thereby call this stuff solute. Amount of solute in the solution mainly determines the ways by which the solution can react when in presence of another solution. A solution will be labeled one of three ways as compared to another solution. First, it can be considered an isotonic solution, meaning that it has an equal quantity of solute and water as compared to another solution. Second, it can be considered a hypertonic solution which means it has more levels solute and less water than another solution.
Third, it can be considered a hypotonic solution which means it has less solute and more water than another solution. For example, “This is the situation described above - when you were waiting in the lobby, you and the two other people were like solute in a solution, and all that space around was the water. When the elevator doors opened, there were a lot more people in a lot less space in that elevator - a lot more solute in a lot less water. Therefore, your lobby was considered hypotonic when compared to the crammed elevator.” Tonic mainly refers to the tonicity levels of the solution or osmotic pressure that is gradient of the two solutions that are separated by the semi-permeable membrane.
A semi-permeable membrane is considered to be a barrier which only allows certain molecules to pass through. Things like the water molecules can pass through a membrane easily, however, things like the salts or proteins or the fats cannot. The membranes are quite common in the different living things. Each of the cells in the body is covered by the semi-permeable membrane, so that there is control over what goes in and out of the cells. Due to different properties related to diffusion, every solute in the solution has a tendency to disperse from each other until they are distributed evenly. In the aqueous solutions this can be caused mainly by interactions that the polar water molecules have on solutes. Opposite ends of the molecule have different charges which have the ability to form different types of bonds called the hydrogen bonds with the other charged portion of the solute molecules.
Example of hypotonic solution “Corn syrup is a hypertonic solution in relation to the cells within a living organism. This is because the corn syrup solution contains more solutes inside of it than the body cells. An example of a hypertonic solution that has glucose dissolved into it is any plain glucose solution with a concentration higher than 5%.”
“An example of a hypertonic solution that has glucose dissolved into it is any plain glucose solution with a concentration higher than 5%. One such example is a solution of 10% dextrose in water, also known by its name D10W. This is often used as an IV fluid.”
“Examples of hypertonic solutions are: 10 percent dextrose solution, hyperalimentation solutions, D5w and 3 percent normal saline. These solutions have greater tonicity than the fluids within the body's cells and when injected, it causes a loss of fluids from the cells to the surrounding spaces.”
A hypotonic solution is considered to be a solution with lower levels of concentration of the salt than in the normal cells of body and blood. The solution usually contains 0.25% or 0.45% of thye saline and will also have dextrose as well. Potassium chloride can also sometimes be included in the solution.
Hypertonic solutions have higher solute concentration. When the plant cells are placed in such solutions, water will move from inside the plant cell to the outside of the cell, resulting in the shrinking of the cell (the cell is said to be plasmolyzed). This mainly takes place because of osmosis. When there are solutes on two sides of a membrane, a balance of solute on the two sides of the membrane will be attempted. The molecules on both sides of the membrane will try to move across the membrane, but the net movement will be down the concentration gradient (from high to low concentration). In a hypertonic solution, there is less water outside than inside the plant cell, so the water within the plant will try to diffuse outside in order to achieve equilibrium.
Experiment based on hypotonic solution,
Purpose: The purpose of the lab examination is to demonstrate how water moves by osmosis from a hypotonic solution through a semi permeable membrane into a hypertonic one. A hypotonic solution has fewer solutes per unit volume as compared to a solution on the opposite side of a semi permeable membrane. The solution on opposite side has more solutes per unit volume and is hypertonic. For example a 2% sugar solution is hypotonic to a 10% sugar solution when the two are separated by a semi permeable membrane. The 10% solution is hypertonic. The hypotonic solution based experiment is thereby able to prove depict the ways by which the process can take place within the plants and the effect that it has thereby has on them as well.
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