To understand the aspects of Political Revolution, it is important to understand the term Revolution. Revolution refers to the sudden changes in the political power within a society and changes in the policies and procedures that are governing in the society. It is usually seen that the revolutions are made against the political parties or the government of a society. There can be many forms revolutions, scientific revolution, technological revolution, industrial revolution and even intellectual revolution. There are also social evolutions as well, that are generally placed against the social concepts and practices.
However, it has often been seen that the revolutions are political in their orientation, as the social conducts are majorly related with the political organizations or the government of the society. Also the political parties contribute majorly in the revolutionary conducts done in the societies, therefore, it is often seen that a revolution which does not start off as a political revolutions in its orientation, turn into one, with increasing time. Therefore, a political revolution is an upheaval in the government through which the government system of a certain place is altered or completely replaced. The political revolutions are essentially political in their orientation and have differences with the social revolutions, on certain aspects. The political revolution does refer to the complete denouncement of the existing political party, but the structured relationships and the property relationships are left unchanged, but in case of the social revolutions, the old structured and property relationships are completely denounced and changed. The political revolution refers to the removal of the existing government by force, and in place, there is a new system of ruling, a new system of powder relationship and new set of power structure. One of the most important aspect to understand is that the political revolution is conducted or posed against the existing and the ruling party or the party in the power, not just any political party. Also, it is to be understood that the political revolution can result into the complete overthrown of the existing government or it can also result into the partial changes in the government, changes in the ruling system, changes in the constitution, changes or modifications in some of the existing practices or policies. In this regard the differentiation made by Aristotle can be mentioned. According to Aristotle, there are essentially two forms of Revolutions,
® The revolution that modifies or brings changes within the existing constitution, and
® The revolution that brings a complete change about the constitution, turning one constitution, into a totally new one.
The origin of the political revolution lies in the French Revolution, and the revolutions risen by the concepts of Renaissance. For example, the French Revolution and the Marxist revolution are the major forms of revolution that had changed the course of history. However, the Trotskyist movement, which was risen as against the capitalist counter revolution, in the states with no democracy and with a very poor states of the workers, were more political un their orientation than the French or Marxist movements. The French revolution was started off as the intellectual movement, which is why they are often called the Revolution of thought, by the Trotskyist movements were more political in their orientation. The revolution was posed essentially with the aim to, overthrow the capitalist based government system that was characterized by, practicing bureaucratic privileges, in order to initiate democracy within the social system and to maintain a state owned political relations. The first potential Trotskyist political revolution took place in Hungary, in the year 1956 that is known as the Hungarian movement. After the Hungarian movement, the world saw a series of Political Movement or revolutions taking place, for example, the Czechoslovakian Prague Spring of 1968, the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, and the like.
Therefore, in order to understand the orientation of the political movements, it is essential to understand the key characteristics of the political movement or the political revolution.
There are certain subtle difference between the political and the social movements.
d Firstly, it can be said that the prime character of a revolution is that it is done or posed in order to provide voices to the lower classes or lower sections of the society, who are deprived and denied of all the social privileges. This can be perceived from all the revolution that had taken place over the time. For example the Russian revolution of 1917.
d Secondly, the political revolutions are always against the existing government, that is to say, they are posed against the existing government structure, the existing power relations or the power structure, and the existing constitution system, which were or are currently governing in the society. It is often misunderstood by the fact that a political revolution denotes revolution against any political party, but this is a wrong notion. The revolution or movement is always against the government or the constitution that is in practice. For example the Marxist revolution that was voicing for the proletariats as against the existing practice of providing leverages and privileges to the bureaucrats of the society.
d Thirdly, it can be stated that the political revolution introduces a modern or liberal thought within the system. It is seen that the political revolutions that have taken place in the history, have been posed against the existing traditional thoughts. They have voiced against the existing forces of conservatism being practiced in the social structure, in order to initiate forces of liberalism within the society, for example the French revolution of 1789, and the Russian revolution of 1917.
d Fourthly, it can also be seen that the revolution is patterned form of protest by the mass, who practice the resistance against the government. And it is seen that as the government tries more to resist the forms of protests or the revolutionary conducts, the movement fans out even more. For example, the Italian revolution of 1848.
Therefore, it can be stated that the political movements are essentially political in their orientation and in their methods of persuasion.
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