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What Is Evolution and Divergent Evolution? What Are The Convergent Evolution?

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Evolution

Evolution is the process by which an organism or a population of organism go through a process of changes over a multiple generation borrowed by heredity. This is the factor in biology that helps in the identification of the study throughout the processes of occurrences and the mechanism of biological changes including natural selection, genetic drift and sexual selection. evolution is indeed the heritable characteristics change in a population over a long period of time having various generations included successively one after another. the characteristics of a particular gene and its genetic expression is passed from one parent to its offspring at the time of reproduction. During these times there are various characteristics that also happens to exist within the population of a given species which has been conducted as per the result of genetic recombination, genetic variation and also different sources of mutation. The occurrence of evolution happens during a process by which the characteristics evaluated by genetic drift for sexual selection on natural selection becomes either common or rare in a specific population of a species. evolution gives rise to the biodiversity of a biological organism in every level of its molecules and species. However, Charles Darwin has also presented a scientific theory of evolution based on the natural selection that was demonstrated by his observations of an offspring and its possible survival. This was based upon the findings of Charles Darwin based upon the morphology, physiology, behavioural patterns and phenotypic variations of the living organisms. there are other observable factors about the living organisms that give way towards the concept of evolution as well. These traits included the survival reproduction and differential fitness of an organism and also the genetic traits that were passed from one generation to the another with the heritability of fitness. It has been found that the theory of evolution and the concept of evolution as observed by Charles Darwin has been successfully identified in different generations of a particular member of a population. This is given a successful view towards the fact that due to the formation of evolution that can also be a factor that may result into complete dissolution of a particular genetic factor through evolution from parent to the offspring.

Divergent Evolution

As per the concepts of biology, there is another kind of evolution present and has also been observed in different species. This is referred to as divergent evolution which is defined as a process where air groups belonging to the same common and sisters has evolved to have different features and resulted into the formation of a completely new species that has no similarity to the ancestors that they have evolved from. It may occur that the changes that divergent evolution has brought about is a response to the changes that occur in the abiotic factors for the environmental conditions where a new niche is readily available at any point of time. divergent evolution may also be occurring as a result of the biotic factors which may happen to be a result of the increased and decreased pressure of predation and competition. divergent evolution has been found to leading the way towards speciation and also works on the different variation of population and its gene pool. If it is found that any kind of reproductive barrier has separated the groups within a single population than the various genes that have been controlling the aspects of the ability of every organism happens to survive and reproduce at the same time with the help of the ability of its restrictions towards the increasing and decreasing of gene flow frequency. The occurrence of allopatric speciation and peripatric speciation also occurs when geographical and physiological barriers happens to produce the reproductive barrier. It may occur that a river or a mountain range has come between the species to form a barrier for them about producing and offspring. This can even occur within the same geographical area about the parapatric speciation where even belonging to the same area the reproductive various can occur.

Convergent Evolution

The concepts of biology also have the description about a particular kind of evolution which is known as convergent evolution. Convergent evolution is a factor that is formed out of independent evolution factors within different lineages and their species having similar features. This kind of evolution is mostly responsible for the creation of analogous structures within the species where there may be occurrences that similar form of function can be found between different species that do not belong to the same group of ancestors. There is also a cladistic term for this phenomenon which is regarded as homoplasy. The classic example of the convergent order current evolution is flight like the genetic characteristics of flying. It is clearly seen that insects, bats, birds, pterosaur and other animals can fly. Although these do not belong to the same species, they have the ability to fly which is the similar genetic characteristics of all these animals, insects and birds. this is a classic example of convergent evolution as the idea of having similar features in different lineages of species is easily visual in this species about the generator characteristics of flight. they all have wings as their analogous structures however the fore limbs are homologous and in all the cases the fore limbs served different functions. There are many instances of convergent evolution taking place in plants that separate the same species in two different disposals as some of the plants are able to do photosynthesis but some of them rely on their carnivorous attitudes for fulfilling their hunger. Therefore, it is evident that even belonging to the same species of plants they have to perform different genetic functions to make sure that their food intake is quenched through different forms of eating. some prefer photosynthesis, some prefer seed dispersal of fleshy fruits eaten by animals and other plants like the Venus fly trap depend on their carnivorous attitudes.

Types of macroevolution

Macroevolution or mutation is phyletic gradualism that helps in the identification of evolution that is occurring at a larger scale which is above the level of a particular species and are visible to the naked eye. This also happens to have the variation of different allele frequencies conducted over a level of a particular species where iteration of a specific allele is provided over a given gene. There are various patterns of the macro evolution that is dependent upon the 6 important patterns. This can be regarded to the following types:

  • Adaptive radiation
  • Mass extinction
  • Convergent evolution
  • Punctuated equilibrium
  • Coevolution
  • Developmental gene changes

the change in the evolution in nature of a species is termed as macro evaluation where a species can also split into two for producing and other species over a given point of time. This happens at a much bigger scale over a longer period of time where a possibility of extinction or complete dissolve of a particular species can occur as well as changes in a particular species can also occur over a longer period of time exposed to extensive radiation. There are various examples of birds that has changed its physical features over the ear due to adaptive radiance.

There is also convergent evolution which is why a same species belonging to different areas adapt to the environmental features and it happens to appear different than in similar species belonging to some other area. The process of coevolution is another macroevolution that happens to have two species revolt in response to changes in each other. Like the fig fruit and the wasp co-evolute and within 80 million of years have attend a similar physical feature. Due to the infestation of the figs and the wasp fix have also develop physical feature that were not originally formed.

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