Bourgeoisie are the sociologically defined class of the contemporary times. These are being considered as a certain group of people, belonging from a certain culture and a financial capital. They basically belong from the middle and upper middle class society. They are the affluent and sharply oppose to that of the proletariat class. The Bourgeoisie can be regarded as this group of people, who generally live in the borough. It is important to be mentioned in this context that these people were generally merchants and craftsmen as opposed to that of the people, living in the rural area. From the last half of 11th century, especially from the Renaissance of the 12th century, the Bourgeoisie began to appear. With their appearance, the era of rural exodus and urbanization has started. The Bourgeoisie, in its simplest form can be regarded as the legally defined class, who belong to the middle ages to the last half of the Ancien Régime. The Bourgeoisie had the right of availing the citizenship of the France. In addition, they had also the ability to access the political right of France.
The "bourgeoisie" people were in the original sense were closely linked with that of the cities. Therefore, they were recognized by the urban charters such as municipal charter, town privileges, and German town law. Thus, it can be said that there was bourgeoisie "outside the walls of the city". During the 11th century, the Bourgeoisie was the most significant historical and political phenomenon. This particular class basically arrived at the time, when the bourgs of Central and Western had been started to develop and enter into the cities by showing interest to the commerce. The role of effective economic concentration is needed to be considered in this context as it has helped in rapid expansion of both organizations into guilds that had resulted in prompt expansion of the urban class. The guilds had been developed at the time, when the businessmen like craftsmen, artisans and merchants had started to conflict with that of the landlords, who had said that they required high amount of rent, which is higher than that of the agreement. During the end of the middle ages, the bourgeois people had put great effort in terms of protecting their own interest by getting immense support from that of the national monarchies of Western Europe. In addition to that, the bourgeoisie also gave proper protection to the kind and queen against the legal and economic disorder which had caused due to the presence of the greed of the feudal lords. During the last half of 16th century and first half of the 17th century, bourgeoisies of England and the Netherlands had acquired utmost financial and political power in order to conquer the military power in the field of politics.
In between 17th and 18th century, the bourgeoisie were being considered as politically and socially progressive class, who had provided immense support to that of the principles of constitutional government and of natural right by opposing the Law of Privilege and protect the divine right, which should be exercise by the nobles and prelates at the time of federal order. The intense desire of the bourgeoisie to leave the feudal and royal encroachments on their personal liberty had partially motivated the English Civil War (1642–51), French revolution (1789–99) and American War of Independence (1775–83). This is the way, through which the Bourgeoisie had also protected their commercial prospects, and the ownership of property. During the first half of the 19th century the liberalism had been advocated by the bourgeoisie. Through this way, they have gained immense political and religious right as well as civil liberties for both of them and the lower class. Thus, the people belong from the Bourgeoisie society, was considered as the progressive philosophers as they had acted as the political force in the Western society. During the middle of 19th century, after the Industrial Revolution (1750–1850), the Bourgeoisie had expanded in such a manner, which had resulted in their stratification. The people associated with business activity and by economic function and bankers were considered as haute bourgeoisie, the tradesmen and white-collar workers are defined as the petite bourgeoisie. In addition to that, in the last half of 19th century, the capitalist people were come up to the upper class people. Prompt development of technology and the technical occupation had played a major role in terms of rising of working class by comprising of both the men and women.
In the context of Marxism, the bourgeoisie play a pivotal role in terms of making revolutionary change in the industry by creating employment opportunity to the people. In addition, the bourgeoisie people have also helped in modernizing the society. Bourgeoisie had also help in monopolizing the benefit of the society by exploiting the proletariat, which had resulted in revolutionary tension within the society. As per the Marxist philosophy, the end result of the intense effort of the bourgeoisie people to protect their self-interest had created intense tension in between the property less proletariat in order to protect their self-interest. It has resulted in class conflict and exploitation, which had ultimately resulted in major imbalance in the society. However, it is still a mystery that, whether the bourgeoisie was homogeneous, who are not particularly inclined towards performing their assigned task. According to Karl Marx, the bourgeoisie were first arrived in the ancient and mediaeval period. They were considered as the wealthy, who had oppressed the poorest plebeians and laborers in a very inhuman manner.
Prompt advancement of new technology has resulted in sustainable growth of the market force, due to which everything had changed. The strong growth of trade and manufacturer had supported the middle class people to gain wealth and power which had challenged the super power and authority of the early oppressor. This stage had created new struggle in between the bourgeoisie (the property owning class) and the proletariat (the industrial working class).
Marxism philosophy believed that bourgeoisie had oppressed and exploited the proletariat in a merciless manner. The significance of proletariats in strengthening the power of bourgeoisie is needed to be considered in this context. They had put great effort in terms of creating great wealth for the bourgeoisie. The products, which are nothing but the materialistic outcome come of the works of the labors, were sold for the value, which is higher than that of the labors itself. The rate of these products was higher than that of the wages. It is imperative to note in this context that a cloth was being sold by the capitalist class in £5, which was produced by the workers in £2. As the capitalists were bestowed with the power of controlling the entire production procedure, they made high profit by selling products at a very higher rate. However, the workers cannot get benefit from the added value along with the fruit of their own labor.
It was the belief in Marx that capitalism had planted the seed of their own destruction. Marx had described the way, through which the bourgeoisie were highly dependent on the activities of the proletariat. This is the reason, for which the capitalism should have the underclass which according to Marx will play a major role in terms of creating greater degree of resentment. Karl Marx believed that eventually class will beat the revolution against the bourgeoisie who had oppressed them for long period of time.
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