Learn smart - Learn online. Upto 88% off on courses for a limited time. View Courses
Error goes here
Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.
RUNNING HEAD: MARKETING
Name of the University
name of the Student
RUNNING HEAD: MARKETING
Name of the University
name of the Student
Table of Contents
1. Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 2
2. Critical analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 2
3. Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 9
Reference ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 10
By the end of 20 th century some significant rapid changes happened in the business
world. Retail giants like Amazon emerged as one of the authority of digital business.
Gradually by the first half of 21 st century it introduced itself as the pioneer in this model.
Many small and medium e -commerce digital businesses started to follow Amazon’s
benchmark strategy (Johnson 2010) . Two of the key reasons of Amazon’s success is use of
internet and knowledge management. On the other hand Covid -19 pandemic has pushed the
major workfor ce into their homes. Therefore these people are connected through internet.
This social distancing has also a deep impact on the digital business.
2. Critical analysis
Amaz on was founded in the year 1994. In the initial it was only selling books and
gradually it became the largest retailer in the world. The company has been the vanguard of
retail innovation. Amazon has invested into internet technology to create a seamless process
of customer service. This is one of the main reasons why Amazon has bec ome more
successful retail business. On the other hand Amazon’s strategy pf knowledge management
has also created a strong digital business model (Chaffey, Edmundson -Bird, and Hemphill
2019) . From the beginning of their business Amazon has tried to recogni ze the how their user
experience their product and service. Amazon has also tried to understand the ability of their
customers to explore what they want. Through ages Amazon has used the knowledge
management to develop the experience of customers through g iving the right service at right
time (Ismail, Khater, and Zaki 2017) . This was not enough for Amazon as it tried to help
customers to fulfil their aims with a customized way.
To leverage the experience level of the customer Amazon found through knowledge
management that there has to be one common portal for every product. The one common
point of contact has been able to attract more customers. Through the same portal cus tom er
get the same experience. This is not a mere experience of the customers. This becomes a
habit for the customer and therefore it becomes a platform of social interaction also. The
customers are directly conversing with the sellers, but through the buying process customers
get to know about the seller (Smith, Wollan, and Zhou 2011) . Both customer and sellers
exchange their taste and preference. This way it turns into a social interaction. Such social
interaction is very important in knowledge management. Such exchange of thoughts also
helps in new knowledge development which is again very important for digital businesses
like Amazon (Varian 1998) . Now -a— days custom er have become so familiar with the use of
one portal that if Amazon tries to introduce different portals for different products then there
is a chance that Amazon will fail in its business. Interaction through a single portal has
provided a comfort zone for customer which has leveraged the business of Amazon.
Amazon has not only utilized th e knowledge and information regarding the t aste and
preference of the customers , but it has also introduced a method of interview to choose the
best candidate to deliver best customer experience. It is important to note that Jeff Bezos, the
founder of Amaz on, has put special emphasis on the new knowledge development. To elevate
the new knowledge development process Bezos has focused on the recruiting p eople from
diverse backgrounds with a range of experience (Turban, et al. 2012) . This is done very
purposefully. The purpose is to know about people with different ideas and preferences.
Through gathering them A mazon can identify different socio -cultural trends in the market.
Even during interviews Jeff Bezos involves other executive s, and the reason for this inclusion
is to know differe nt perspectives. In this way Bezos tries to get an unbiased viewpoint. Such
proc ess also helps to get an unbiased view of customers’ choice.
It is very clear from the above instance that Amazon puts a great emphasis on
knowledge management. In knowledge management it is important to focus on the
interaction between individual, groups or communities and organization. Amazon tries to
understand an individual’s perspective and then connects it with the socio -cultural
perspective and organizational goals. The goal is to create new technologies to enhance the
digital business. The main driver of this business is innovatio n which is achieved through the
exchange of knowledge and information.
Apart from one portal and experimental interviews, Amazon uses knowledge
management in its web technologies. Amazon web technologies, which is known as AWS
(Amazon web services) starte d its journey in the year 2000. Amazon web services assists
third party vendors for creation of shopping sites. It helps to reduce price for data
consumption and helps to save the cost increased by an additional level of production (Quah,
2003) . It is one of the ways through which Amazon has become more successful in their
digital business. It is true that technology has a remarkable role to play in manging the
problematic aspects of knowledge . But it is also true that the superiority of web servi ce and
search engine interface do not obviously depend on the technological supremacy . Amazon’ s
web techn ologies are more inclined to the way the knowledge is being classified. From the
private domains of the customers their personal knowledge is seized by Amazon. After it is
taken from the private domain it is then made explicit by Amazon and available for further
utilization and manipulation. In traditional system suc h classification is done by different
agents. Utilization of internet and knowledge management has equipped Amazon to make it
Amazon’s feature of your store or wish -list is another example of knowledge
management . Through these feature Amazon sugg ests preferable products to meet the
choice of customers. When Customers sign in and puts something in the wish list or
store , Amazon retains the information of all movements of the customer on the website or
preferences. A considerable change from ambiguous to unambiguous knowledge happens
when preferences are linked to unspoken private information about specific customers.
After the customers gives any feedback , it keeps the feedback open to all the customers
and it gives other customers ways to analyse the information in their own way.
Covid -19 has pushed the major workforce into their residences in all over the world.
United Kingdom is not an exception of this sy stem. Governmen ts have issued many social
distancing norms. Gradually social distancing has become an un written norm of the society.
In UK 45% of the workforce are working from their home. The employees who are working
have ample access to internet. The kn owledge they are getting via internet are not always
filtered. They often get information from different sources which are both implied or tacit and
explicit or clear. Therefore there is deep connection between the social distancing and
knowledge managemen t (Davis, Ghent, and Gregory 2021) . The employees who are working
from home are required analyse different data related to sales growth, leads and conversions.
Therefore it is important for them to understand the classification of information. According
to Nonaka and Takeuchi knowledge transformation may occur from tacit to tacit, tacit to
explicit , explicit to tacit and explicit to explicit (Deghani, and Ramsin 2015) . Their model is
also known as SECI model of knowledge conversion. SECI implies to soci ali zation,
externalization, combination and internalization .
Figure : SECI Model
Source : (Natek, and Zwilling 2016)
The SECI model suggests an evolutionary path of knowledge. Sequentially it goes
through different stages of evolution. The quality of the k nowledge remains the same through
the entire journey. It is very useful to understand the organizational culture of knowledge
management. Knowledge management mostly refers to obtaining, storing, disseminating and
application of knowledge . SECI model also helps to generate better quality of knowledge
through a holistic process (Deghani, and Ramsin 2015) . Knowledge conversion process helps
to identify the better quality knowledge. It deals with explicit and tacit knowledge. If the
entire knowledge is conside red as an iceberg then explicit knowledge remains in the top of
that iceberg. Ex plicit knowledge is such type of knowledge which is visible to the people
clearly, or it can be said that people are capable of arranging and transferring explicit
knowledge through official language. Example of explicit knowledge can be organizational
communication and knowledge of different products. In covid -19 scenario most of the
organizational communications are happening through internet based interface and product
know ledge are gathered from different web platforms.
On the other hand tacit knowledge is more inclined to analogical aspects. It has
emerged from different experience related to specialised works. Tacit knowledge is
rooted into the significant activities (Orenga, and Chalmeta 2019) . Often habits and
practices are influenced by the tacit knowledge. Using a particular machine or any
software can be examples of tacit knowledge. In the pandemic scenari o, the employees
who are working from home are requir ed use different tools and tach nologies to
communicate with their colleagues, superiors (Orenga, and Chalmeta 2019) . Other
communication those employees also need to learn different new technological skills to
work on different data related to industry. Therefore there is a strong base of tacit
According to Nonaka and Takeuchi knowledge is formed through a very critical
process of knowledge conversion from tacit to explicit knowledge. The SECI model
refers to the four steps of socialization, externalization, combination and internalization
conversion modes. These four conversion modes are generated through shifts from one
type of knowledge to another type.
The spiral model of conversion starts with sociliaztion mode. Here tacit
knowledge is shared between the individuals or peers. Individuals share their experience
on a regular basis. It important to remember that tacit knowledge is often timbound and
related to specific space (Orenga, and Chalmeta 2019) . Therefore it can be acq uired
through direct exchange of work related experiences. In pandemic scenario employees,
trainees, interns often deal with tacit knowledge as they have to go through a daily
practice of new technologies. Whether the employees are entirely able to learn t hrough
shared experience is a big question. Even this may create barrier for learning new skills
which may lead to decreasing of performance and profit of the organization.
Through externalization mode the knowledge is converted into new explicit
knowledg e. From different concepts, ideas, visual expressions the knowledge is
converted from tacit to explicit (Osterwalder, Pigneur, and Tucci 2005) . To make the tacit
knowledge capable of codification individuals use metaphors and allegories. To succeed
in this con version process it necessary to disseminate the knowledge through a process of
replication and action (Osterwalder, Pigneur, and Tucci 2005) . This process reduces the
gap between subject and the object. Through this replica tio n and a ction process a
concrete knowledge is formed. This type of knowledge helps an orgnization to build a
strong mission and vision (North, and Kumta 2018). In pandemic situation employees
may become less competent in terms o f learning new skills and technol og ies. Ther efore it
is very crucial for the orgnization to build a strong learning and development mission and
vision for future growth so that the orgnization can both retain employees and grow
In the combination mode of conversion explici t knowledge is then united with
intra or inter -or ganizational explicit knowledge. Then it is assembled, revised to be more
composite and organized form of explicit knowledge . Usage of online database is the best
example of combining explicit knowledge (Girard, and Girard 2015) . In pandemic
scenario digital mode of communication and big data can enhance this form of
knowledge. Using of different video conferencing tools, sales lead management tools,
and online databases has been very cr uci al si nce th e ou tbreak of the pandemic.
Individuals absorb explicit knowledge, enhancing their tacit knowledge base, as
part of the SECI spiral. Formal knowledge is linked to personal experiences, which are
subsequently transmitted and applied in practical circumstances, establishing the
foundation for employees' updated routines (Dávideková, and Hvorecký 2016) . In work
from home set up employees are trained with different skills through different reading
materials, audio -visual items . Employees can learn from them and reflect the knowledge
upon their ta sks responsibilities.
From the above discussion it can be concluded that knowledge management has
become a very crucial component of 21 st century business world. Amazon has used
knowledge management in its ow n way. It has set a benchmark for the smaller businesses. On
the other hand through the SECI model the transformation of knowledge has also become
clear. In work from home set up employees learn many a things through shared experience,
audio -visual content and organizations use various data base to manage their complex
knowledge to grow in the market.
Chaffey, D., Edmundson -Bird, D. and Hemphill, T., 2019. Digital business and e -commerce
management . Pearson UK.
Dávideková, M. and Hvorecký, J., 2016, September. Collaboration tools for virtual teams in
terms of the SECI model. In International Conference on Interactive Collaborative
Learning (pp. 97 -111). Springer, Cham.
Davis, M.A., Ghent, A.C. and Gregory, J.M., 2021. The Work -fro m-Home Technology Boon
and its Consequences (No. w28461). National Bureau of Economic Research.
Dehghani, R. and Ramsin, R., 2015. Methodologies for developing knowledge management
systems: an evaluation framework. Journal of Knowledge Management .
Girard , J. and Girard, J., 2015. Defining knowledge management: Toward an applied
compendium. Online Journal of Applied Knowledge Management , 3(1), pp.1 -20.
Ismail, M.H., Khater, M. and Zaki, M., 2017. Digital business transformation and strategy:
What do we kn ow so far. Cambridge Service Alliance , 10 , pp.1 -35.
Johnson, Steven., 2010. Where good ideas come from: the natural history of innovation. New
York: Riverhead. Chapter 2: Liquid networks, pp. 45 -65.
Natek, S. and Zwilling, M., 2016, May. Knowledge management systems support SECI
model of knowledge -creating process. In Joint International Conference (pp. 1123 -1131).
North, K. and Kumta, G., 2018. Knowledge management: Value creation through
organizational learning. Springer.
Orenga -Roglá , S. and Chalmeta, R., 2019. Methodology for the implementation of
knowledge management systems 2.0. Business & Information Systems Engineering , 61 (2),
Osterwalder, A., Pigneur, Y., and Tucci, C. L., 2005. Clarifying business models: Origins,
present, and future of the concept. Communications of the association for Information
Systems , 16(1):1 –25.
Quah, D. , 2003. Digital goods and the new economy. In Jones, D., editor, New Economy
Handbook , chapter 13, pages 289 –321. Academic Press Elsevier S cience.
Rayna, T. and Striukova, L., 2008. Privacy or piracy, why choose? Two solutions to the issue
of digital rights management and protection of personal information. International Journal of
Intellectual Property Management , 2(3):240 –252.
Smith, N., Wollan, R., and Zhou, C. , 2011. The Social Media Management Handbook:
Everything you need to know to get social media working . Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley
Turban, E., King, D., Lee, J., Ting -Peng, L., and Turban, D., 2012). Electronic Commer ce
2012: A Managerial and Social Networks Perspective . Pearson, 7th edition.
Varian, H. R. , 1998. Markets for information goods. Mimeo, University of California,
Enter the password to open this PDF file:
MyAssignmenthelp.com has emerged as one-stop solution for students in USA. We have assembled a team of experts to help students from different fields of study. With a pool of 3000+ experts, we are capable of providing top-notch quality plagiarism-free assignments within any short deadline. Our assignment writing services cover more than 100 subjects such as accounting assignment help, maths assignment help, economics assignment help, law assignment help and statistics assignment help.
On APP - grab it while it lasts!
*Offer eligible for first 3 orders ordered through app!
ONLINE TO HELP YOU 24X7
OR GET MONEY BACK!
OUT OF 38983 REVIEWS
Received my assignment before my deadline request, paper was well written. Highly