The construction works in Nepal are very risky. Most of the unskilled and semi-skilled workers at construction site are from villages who are not much aware about the safety as it to be(Mishra, 2019). Although the safety policy, rules and regulations and safety provisions are provided, most of the construction company are found not following the proper safety practices at site(Dahal, 2005). Lack of proper safety measures leads to the serious injuries and to the loss of life and property. Every individual who are associated with the construction work must be aware about the safety of the site (Jaillon et al,2009). The workers who work at site must follow strictly the safety measures as accident can happen at any time in the site. Even the simple mistake at site can lead to the massive damage of the property and life (Teo, Ling and Chong, 2005). Workers at site, most of the time they spent their time with chemicals, machines, tools and equipment so they must take care of their health and the colleagues which is possible only by the proper implementation of safety at the site. But the construction company and the workers in Nepal are found to be unaware and neglected the site safety.
The main objective of this research is to develop and propose the approaches which would help to make safe construction site in Nepal.
a.To understand safety policy and organisational policies regarding site safety.
b.To understand present trend if site safety training provided to the workers.
c.To study how safety management is operated in construction site
d.To study whether safety monitoring and review procedures are incorporated in the construction site
e.To know the status of site safety for sub-contractors.
1.4Significance of Study
The study will help to highlight the importance of construction site safety in Nepal. By the development of site safety framework, construction professionals will be familiar with the factors required to decrease the risk at site. This framework will be useful tool for site safety and prevent risk of accidents at site. Moreover, it helps contractors to perform self-assessment of site safety, supports in site safety analysis and decision making. It will help to prevent risk of accident at site and make construction site safe.
1.5Limitation of Study
The research considered only the A class contractors in building constructions in Nepal.
The primary point in doing the literature review is to gather information on the research subject. As it will be referenced in the book index toward the finish of the report the mains sources are from journal papers, seminar paper, articles, paperwork and reference books. The study starts with detail literature review on safety of construction industry concentrating initially on the nature of scope of the construction industry and the most activities that include unsafe and hazardous tasks. Subsequently an outline of the dramatic level of occupational injuries and fatalities happening all through the word is featured so as to call attention to the colossal significance of overseeing safety execution in site. From that point the emphasis would be on the need to improve the procedure of safety in construction projects considering the elements answerable for significant reasons for site accidents with the impact of globalization perspective and socio-cultural issues which are likewise investigated. Finally, the challenge faced by developing country like Nepal is in implementing effectively safety procedures in construction industry.
2.2Definition of key terms
Before a detailed discussion of site safety status for construction industry in Nepal, it is required to be clear about some basic definitions about occupational health and safety as well as the legitimate system for safety as it appears to be essential to have a clear understanding of the nature and working conditions in construction industry and safety associations to create a productive apparatus for safety issue.
Health is the protection of physical and mental state of individuals from sickness coming about because of the materials, procedures or methodology utilized in the work environment. (Hughes and Ferrett, 2008).
Safety is the assurance of individuals from physical injury. It is the condition of being protected from unlikely cause of danger, risk or injury. Generally, the two words health and safety are used together to demonstrate concern for the physical and mental prosperity of the person at the work environment (Hughes and Ferrett, 2008).
Accident is an incident that consequences harm (Glendon, Alarke and Mckenna,2006). It is also defined as any impromptu occasion that outcomes in injury or sickness of individuals, or harm or loss to property, plant, materials or nature, or loss of a business property. (Hughes and Ferrett, 2008). In the UK, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is answerable for the requirement of the Health and Safety at Work (HSW) Act and completing the everyday work to empower the Health and Safety Commission (HSS) to complete its capacities. The HSC is answerable for the advancement of the HSW and empowering research, preparing, giving a data and warning administration.
Hazard is the potential of a material, activity or procedure to cause destruction (Keng, 2004). Hazards take many forms including chemicals, electricity, working from a ladder etc. A hazard can be positioned comparative with different hazards or to a potential level of threat.
Risk is the possibility of a material, activity or procedure to cause harm (Germain, 2011). A risk can be decreased and the hazard constrained by great administration. It is essential to recognize a risk and a hazard as the two terms are frequently confounded and exercises for example, construction work are called high risk when they are high hazard. In spite of the fact that the hazard will keep on being high, the risks will be diminished as controls are actualized. The degree of risk remaining when controls have been received is known as the leftover risk. There should just be high residual risk where there is poor health and safety management and lacking control measures.