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1 Running Head: EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN CHILDREN IN
EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN CHILDREN IN REDUCING
1 Running Head: EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN CHILDREN IN
EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN CHILDREN IN REDUCING
Name of the Student
Name of the Univesity
2 Running Head: EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN CHILDREN IN
Childhood obesity is acomplex health issue. It occurs when the child is well over the
normal or healthy and weight for age. The behavioural influence an excess weight gain. A person
community also influences obesity as it can affect the ability for making healthier choices. The
Body Mass Index (BMI) is the measurement method for children and adults is the same with the
use of weight that is divided by the square of height. There are differences between children and
adults BMI interpretation. "Obesity" is acomplex, chronic medical condition that has amajor
negative impact on human health. It can affect any age group, either children's or adult's
pollution. Past three decades, it has been seen that an exponential growth over the prevalence of
obesity worldwide has been in doubling rate for both adult and childhood obesity (age between 6
to 11 years). Thus, ithas been amajor public health burden that is most profoundly with an issue
that is significant and typically related to the factors for morbidity, mortality, and cost of health
care. Obese children are likely to stay obese into the middle age period and are susceptible to
developing a non-communicable disease such as risk factors like diabetes and heart-related
disorders like cardiovascular disease at anoticeably early age (Dietz and Santos-Burgoa 2020 ).
The major protective factor includes breastfeeding, the activity related to ayounger child, and
there is also confidence in maternal aspects awith self-efficacy for creating maternal views and
providing with nutrition for children (Chooi, Ding and Magkos 2019 ). Physical activity usually
helps those children who are one by increasing their lean body mass, increasing energy
expenditure by taking appetite improvement and control over the energy intake (Bl üher 2019 ).
The report will highlight the context of the effectiveness of reding childhood obesity among the
age groups between 6-12 years. It will draw up the light of the different studies conducted basis
3 Running Head: EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN CHILDREN IN
the PICO question, the methodology section, inclusion and exclusion criteria followed by the
Childhood obesity is acondition in which the child is significantly overweight for his or
her age and height. The main underlying cause of childhood obesity is lifestyle issues where too
little activity and many calories from food and drink are essential contributors to childhood
obesity. But childhood obesity also has genetic and hormonal parameters, which might play a
function as well. The statistical trend includes children and adolescents aged between 6-12 years
in 2017- 2019. The prevalence of obesity was around 19.3 per cent, and it affected about 14.4
million children and adolescents. The obesity prevalence among the age group from 6-12 years
was 20.3 per cent (Wilkes et al.2019 ). The risk factor associated with childhood obesity is the
diet, where there is regular eating of high caloric food, lack of exercise, family factors,
psychological factors, and certain medication. The protective factor includes breastfeeding, child
physical activity, maternal confidence as a parent, also maternal self-efficacy for the children
lifestyle also child nutrition such as consumption of fruits and vegetables is generally associated
the relevant policies for childhood obesity include that on In the U.K the plan is aimed for
significantly to reduce the rate of childhood obesity over the next decade is main strategy policy
aims to characterise banning the adverts for the high fat, salt or sugar products on the television
and online before 9pm.
4 Running Head: EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN CHILDREN IN
The main aim of the "study" is the effectiveness of physical exercise interventions in
reducing obesity in children between the ages of 6-12 years?
During the last three-decade, obesity as an aspect of the most prevalent public health
issue has been increased drastically over young one which is a very daunting situation as
"obesity in younger groups is usually found to persist into adulthood. Furthermore, youngsters
with adisorder of "obesity" are condition. The most effective intervention for reducing obesity
among children would be physical exercise (Brown et al., 2019 ). Past's study by Popkin et al.
(2020) reviewed the 153 RCTs of a programme that was aimed at preventing obesity in the
children from the ages 0to 18 where 39 RCT targeting children aged zero to five" years eighty-
five RCT targeted children "zero to twelve" years and "29 RCT" targeted children aged thirteen
to eighteen" years was recruited and was found that itcould reduce ameasure of Adiposity in the
children those aged between zero to five years. And for children aged six to twelve years, their
physical activity intervention usually reduced measure for Adiposity was compared over the
control group. For the children aged thirteen to eighteen years, their physical activity
intervention might reduce Adiposity but be uncertain. And the efficacy of obesity intervention
when assed was compared with the potency of the intervention.
5 Running Head: EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN CHILDREN IN
PICO generally is an acronym that stands for pollution, intervention comparison and
outcomes. It helps aperson remember the components of awell-focused clinical question.
Population :Those who are overweight and obese children between 6-12 years
Intervention :Physical activity
Comparison :No physical activity
To construct a well-defined review, there is a need for research that will help in the
identification of articles. The database chosen to conduct the literature will be CINAHL, as it
offered updated and best evidence-based sources. CINAHL is the largest database that presents a
high level of evidence research papers in health care studies (Ebsco.com 2021 ). The keywords
that will be used in this paper included:
Keywords Thesaurus terms
Obesity Overweight, obese
Children Child, School going Children.
Physical activity Exercise
6 Running Head: EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN CHILDREN IN
Table 1: Keywords pertaining to the topic for literature review.
There was the use of Boolean operators that was used in the research strategy. The terms
are used in the identification of papers in the database to narrow down the search process. The
Boolean operators used are 'AND' and 'OR'. Truncation is a searching technique used in
databases in which aword ending is replaced by asymbol such as "obesity", "overweight", and
"Body mass". The truncation was used based on the search method that was relevant for the
findings, whereas the Boolean operator was often used to combining the keyword when
searching the research databases. (Melendez et al.2019 ).
Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
Primary research papers only Papers that are not primary and secondary
have been excluded from the paper.
Papers published in the English language
only have been included
Papers that are published in other languages
have not been included
Papers that have been published in America,
Australia, and United Kingdom have been
Papers that do not have specific and direct
findings were not included
Papers published between 2012-2021 are
included in the study.
Papers previous to 2011 have not been
7 Running Head: EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN CHILDREN IN
Only peer-reviewed articles have been
No other critical literature like meta-
analysis randomised controlled trial review
paper has been added .
Consequently, in three articles that were connected for the utilisation of the actual work
lessening in youngsters those weights were seen no such moral issue was seen, the preliminary
was acted in afreeway for the predetermined age bunches in the school for their investigation
(Ogden, Hollywood and Pring 2015).
This, for interpretation of results as Five chosen article, was there in the search out of
which three was used for correlation of the study for intervention related to reducing obesity.
Four to five abstracts of the randomised controlled trial were used for the study.
According to the study conducted by Bell et al. (2017), obesity in young people is
expressed as asignificant general wellbeing concern. The energy balance is an interrelationship
between actual work and diet that is akey determinant. The utilisation of ASSIST (Activity and
Healthy eating in trial) is a powerful school-based and peer-drove smoking counteraction
program for 12-13 years understudies that include dispersion on developments hypothesis). It
was tracked down that the potential viability had expanded smart dieting utilising self-report
social polls. The movement screens are utilised to quantify actual work. The outcome discovered
that it has achievability to execute the AHEAD (Activity and Healthy Eating in Adolescence)
8 Running Head: EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN CHILDREN IN
mediation. The execution was an asset just as work concentrated and costly. No proof was found
corresponding to the mediation that would increment actual work or good dieting among young
The second article by Adab et al. (2018) was directed to assess the su fficiency of School
and family-based strong lifestyle programs (WAVES mediation) interestingly with normal
practices to prevent youth heftiness. The use of pack randomised controlled primer was
coordinated on U.K. primary schools from the West Midlands. The usage of 200 schools was
picked and an illustration of 980 was oversampling with a high minority ethnic people. The
utilisation of year intercession had been invigorated similarly as great abstaining from excessive
food intake and dynamic work that incorporates step by step additional 30 minutes of instructive
time dynamic work (Adab et al. 2018). This was asix-week clever based program with Aston
Villa Football Club through mail-outs and termly school-drove family workshops. The basic
appraisals recommend that this experiential centred intervention hugely influenced BMI zscore
or preventing youth imposingness. Schools are undoubtedly not going to impact the youthful
heftiness pandemic by entwining such mediations without more expansive help across various
areas and conditions .
The third article by Lloyd et al. (2018) elucidates arational appraisal analysed for the
ampleness of the Children's Health, Activity and Nutrition Get Educated CHANGE) the
individuals were age 10 to 11 and from six intervention and six assessment schools shared a
projected a pack randomised controlled intervention which helps with propelling heading the
twenty-week intercession between 2010 to 2011. It conspired of an educator drove educational
plan, learning resources commercial homework task, the actual outcomes were target studied real
work and idle time, and the food that they confirmation. The outcomes were assessed at the
9 Running Head: EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN CHILDREN IN
example, post-contemplation and stream up was take and were analysed using the two-level
showing and was adjusted to the benchmark regards they see over the real thought of the
development. The "CHANGE" agreeably earnestly affected the body size results and light
genuine work and most effectively an influenced body size among fat youngsters (Lloyd et al.
Levels of validity and reliability
Thus, all three Randomised control trial articles for Physical activity as an of the most
important interventional approach for reducing children with obesity have been reliable and
validated for determining the quality of research. It indicated how well the methods were taken
into consideration, what number of children were considered, the technique by which the
intervention was validated to choose a proper intervention method. The reliability of any
randomised controlled trial experiment is about the consistency measure, and on the other hand,
validity is about the accuracy of ameasure (Lubans et al.2016 ). Thus, the article describing the
randomised controlled trial is considered the most reliable evidence of effectiveness due to the
process used during an RCT that minimises the risk of confounding factors that influence the
result (Forman et al.2016 ).
Significance to health promotion.
The emerging themes associated with the health promotion for childhood obesity include
the is based on population-based childhood obesity prevention, and mot intervention is likely to
10 Running Head: EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN CHILDREN IN
be upstream and midstream. The supreme or the socio-ecological approach to obesity prevention
aims to shape the circumstances and the condition for which that are underlying the determinants
of health and social equity in the society as an emerging challenge will be facing in future. The
main emerging themes that endeavour the future challenges that need to control for childhood
obesity also to minimise the consumption of the caloric food, The future emerging trends would
also help to mitigate the for more physical exercise, also to control the sedentary lifestyle
behaviour like watching television and having the food and also, playing video games etc.
(Wilkie et al.2018 ).
It has been seen that includes cardiovascular disease, diabetes, liver disease and form of
cancer (Waters et al.2018 ). Thus, even during childhood, obesity increases the risk of these
diseases and is asignificant cause of psychological distress. It is important to reduce obesity with
physical activity because preventing obesity is vital in children because childhood obesity
persisting into adulthood increases as the child ages (Peirson et al.2015 ). The most important
interevent for reducing children with obesity is physical activity, which has asignificant role to
play. It helps improve health and reduces the risk of developing several diseases such as diabetes,
specifically types two diabetes: cancer and cardiovascular disease (Bendor et al. 2020 ).
Exercising regularly also helps to prevent weight gain, and it plays apart in personal nursing
wellbeing that is by reducing stress, anxiety, and depression. Thus, one of the most cost-effective
strategies that help improve public health is promoting exercise and commenting for a
recommendation of regular physical activity (Rütten et al.2016 ). Moreover, health promotion
and disease prevention program can have significant health benefits for the individual to make a
healthier choice and reducing the risk, thus ageneral population level it can also end the health
disparities and to improve the quality of life and to improve the availability of healthcare-related
11 Running Head: EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN CHILDREN IN
services (Nystr öm et al.2015 ). Furthermore, health promotion has three levels of prevention
that improve the overall health population, which is also called primary prevention, secondary
prevention, and improving the treatment and recovery, called tertiary prevention (Brown and
Perrin 2018 ). The most essential elements of health promotion are the prevention of diseases,
injury and illness, health education and anticipatory guidance and parental skill development and
to support the that helps to build and is reassuring for of the care needed to afamily member and
individuals seeking health need (Brady et al.,2016 ). Thus, for health promotion, awareness for
physical activity enhancement would require activities like disease prevention and wellness
programs, including healthy behaviour for the general public and children. The most important
health promotion activity would create awareness with strong communication strategies that
induce the public service announcement, health fair over the state district and blocks, mass media
campaigns, and health conclave shows in the news channels and the newsletters (Puhl and Suh
Hence, childhood obesity is acomplex, chronic medical condition that negatively impacts
human health. It involves an excessive amount of body. The background section it with the
statistical trends, followed by the risk and protective factors and political planned for childhood
obesity in the U.K. Thus, the main issue for childhood obesity is the lifestyle issue as too little
activity, and too many calories from the food and drinks and sedentary lifestyle behaviour are
key role players or contributors to obesity in children. There may also be agenetic and hormonal
factor which also plays as well. Moreover, the physical activity that usually helps minimise
12 Running Head: EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN CHILDREN IN
childhood obesity with different intervention techniques was considered. The research question
was thoroughly analysed basis the PICO question formulation. Next, the methodology section
includes the search strategy for why the database was chosen for the literature review. Next, the
reliability and validity of their article were explained for the significance of health promotion
that contains the emerging trends for childhood hood obesity were also considered and its
behaviour awas also described which correlated for the major intervention of childhood obesity
with help with the physical activity that helps in minimising the factor those playing an immense
role. In addition, different health promotion behaviour and education related to creating
awareness were done by communicating about the children obesity management and prevention
13 Running Head: EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN CHILDREN IN
Adab, P., Pallan, M.J., Lancashire, E.R., Hemming, K., Frew, E., Barrett, T., Bhopal, R., Cade,
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14 Running Head: EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN CHILDREN IN
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15 Running Head: EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN CHILDREN IN
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16 Running Head: EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN CHILDREN IN
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17 Running Head: EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN CHILDREN IN
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