The brain is a tremendous three-pound organ that controls all functions of the body, interprets data from the surface world, and embodies the essence of the mind and soul. Intelligence, creativity, emotion, and memory are some of the numerous things ruled by the brain. Protected at intervals the skull, the brain consists of the neural structure, cerebellum, and brainstem.
The brain receives information through our 5 senses: sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing - usually several at just once. It assembles the messages in a very manner that has that means for North American country, and may store that data in our memory. The brain controls our thoughts, memory and speech, movement of the arms and legs, and therefore the operate of the many organs at intervals our body.
The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is composed of spinal nerves that branch from the spinal cord and cranial ner ves that branch from the brain.
The brain is composed of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem.
Cerebrum: Cerebrum is that the largest a part of the brain and consists of right and left hemispheres. It performs higher functions like decoding bit, vision and hearing, furthermore as speech, reasoning, emotions, learning, and fine management of movement.
Cerebellum: Cerebellum found under the cerebrum. It operate is to coordinate muscle movements, maintain posture, and balance.
Brainstem: Brainstem acts as a relay center connecting the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord. It performs many automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, body temperature, wake and sleep cycles, digestion, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and swallowing.
The cerebrum is split into 2 halves: the correct and left hemispheres (Fig. 2) they're joined by a bundle of fibers referred to as the nerve pathway that transmits messages from one aspect to the opposite. Every hemisphere controls the other aspect of the body. If a stroke happens on the correct aspect of the brain, your left arm or leg is also weak or paralytic.
Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.
The cerebral hemispheres have distinct fissures, that divide the brain into lobes. every hemisphere has four lobes: frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital. Every lobe is also divided, once again, into areas that serve terribly specific functions. It is necessary to know that every lobe of the brain doesn't operate alone. There are terribly complicated relationships between the lobes of the brain and between the proper and left hemispheres.
· Personality, behaviour, emotions
· Judgment, planning, problem solving
· Speech: speaking and writing (Broca’s area)
· Body movement (motor strip)
· Intelligence, concentration, self-awareness
· Interprets language, words
· Sense of touch, pain, temperature (sensory strip)
· Interprets signals from vision, hearing, motor, sensory and memory
· Spatial and visual perception
· Interprets vision (colour, light, movement)
· Understanding language (Wernicke’s area)
· Sequencing and organization
In general, the left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for language and speech and is called the "dominant" hemisphere. The right hemisphere plays a large part in interpreting visual information and spatial processing. In about one third of people who are left-handed, speech function may be located on the right side of the brain. Left-handed people may need special testing to determine if their speech center is on the left or right side prior to any surgery in that area.
Aphasia is a disturbance of language affecting speech production, comprehension, reading or writing, due to brain injury – most commonly from stroke or trauma. The type of aphasia depends on the brain area damaged.
The surface of the neural structure is termed the cortex. it's a rolled-up look with hills and valleys. The cortex contains sixteen billion neurons (the neural structure has seventy billi billion total) that are organized in specific layers. The vegetative cell bodies color the cortex grey-brown giving it its name – substantia gray matter to a lower place the cortex are long nerve fibers (axons) that connect brain areas to every alternative — referred to as nerve tissue.
The folding of the cortex increases the brain’s surface area allowing more neurons to fit inside the skull and enabling higher functions. Each fold is called a gyrus, and each groove between folds is called a sulcus. There are names for the folds and grooves that help define specific brain regions.
Pathways called white matter tracts connect areas of the cortex to each other. Messages can travel from one gyrus to another, from one lobe to another, from one side of the brain to the other, and to structures deep in the brain
Memory is a complex process that includes three phases: encoding (deciding what information is important), storing, and recalling. Different areas of the brain are involved in different types of memory (Fig. 6). Your brain has to pay attention and rehearse in order for an event to move from short-term to long-term memory – called encoding.
· Short-term memory, also called working memory, occurs in the prefrontal cortex. It stores information for about one minute and its capacity is limited to about 7 items. For example, it enables you to dial a phone number someone just told you. It also intervenes during reading, to memorize the sentence you have just read, so that the next one makes sense.
· Long-term memory is processed in the hippocampus of the temporal lobe and is activated when you want to memorize something for a longer time. This memory has unlimited content and duration capacity. It contains personal memories as well as facts
· Skill memory is processed in the cerebellum, which relays information to the basal ganglia. It stores automatic learned memories like tying a shoe, playing an instrument, or riding a bike.
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