The most common form of asexual reproduction in prokaryotic organisms like bacteria is called binary fission. The occurrence of binary fission is also prevalent in single-celled organisms like Paramoecium and Amoeba. The replication and segregation in DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) occur simultaneously in case of binary fission.
The parent cell is split up into two parts that helps in the formation of two new cells. The parent cells are divided into two same sized daughter cells once the replication of genetic material is completed. Important factor is that the daughter cells are identical genetically until and unless occurrence of mutation takes place. The DNA molecules divide to form two DNA molecules during binary fission. The cells grow and make place by moving towards the opposite sides of the bacterium to create space. Simultaneously the cell membrane divides and forms two daughter cells. Once, the division is completed this process is repeated henceforth. Basically, binary fission is the process in which the cell copies the DNA material and then splits up from the middle part to form two daughter cells by the plasma membrane which divides the cell apart.
The process of binary fission starts before which the DNA is bounded tightly. The prokaryotic cells carry plasmids, that carry extra genetic information in small structures of DNA. The second step of binary fission involves unravelling of DNA, which release a special type of protein that gain access to the DNA, which works on replication of the ring which is present in DNA. This same protein also works on plasmids present in the cell, which duplicates them also. The DNA and plasmids also starts to get duplicated by the third phase of binary fission. The specific strands of the copy of DNA attaches itself to the various other parts of the cell membrane. The elongation of cell to prepare itself for division, the molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid are also pulled to the different sides of the cell. During step 4 of binary fission a cleavage furrow starts appearing in the cell membrane, when the walls of the cells and membrane start to divide and two cells are created. The final step of binary fission, which is the 5th step is when the cells are entirely separated from each other as a new bacterial cell wall forms. The final step involves breaking any additional proteins that are connected to the two cells or other molecules. The cells now contain everything, which is required by a cell to continue living independently keeping all life functions intact.
The organisms from the domain of Archaea and Bacteria, that reproduce asexually through Binary fission. The bacteria, on this planet are the most populous organisms. The bacteria has very simple genome and because the process of binary fission is very stable, the number of mutations are relatively less in prokaryotes with comparison to eukaryotes. The eukaryotes undergo a series of cell divisions until gametes are produced required for sexual reproduction, thus a series of mutations occurrence is possible until the creation of offspring. There are variety of processes for various other types of bacteria for binary fission. The bacteria are equally divided to create identical cells which can create even smaller divisions acting as spore.
The process of binary fission in case of organelles, which is mitosis is similar to binary fission, though the process is much more complex for larger genomes because of the division to duplicate organelles. Eukaryotic organelles replicate through binary fission by which they create their own DNA which is responsible for their functioning and growth of the organelles through replication of cells by binary fission.
Each cell organelle should be replicated once, in case the resulting cells are required to have the required amount of organelles. When these organelles undergo binary fission, they start moving to the direction where the spindle apparatus and microtubules meet the opposite ends, thus when these cells divide by cytokinesis after the process of mitosis, the cells which undergo binary fission are independent of each other and can function on their own once the entire process of binary fission is completed.
The required stages of binary fission from the replication of cells till they divide after successive steps of the binary fission. The organelles present within the cell wall also start to split and form independent cell organelles that function on their own and are capable of living independently after they split apart from their parent cells to form two sister cells who have the same functionalities as their parent cells but capable of living individually.
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