Ptolemy was an Egyptian mathematician, astronomer, geographer and a philosopher. In Latin, he was well known as Claudius Ptolemy. He was born in 100 CE and died in 170 CE. His career mainly flourished in Alexandria during the 2nd century CE. He is well known to make several contributions in history, music, mathematics and geography as well. Not much is known about Ptolemy other than his left over writings and his several contributions in the world of knowledge. His writings are the major source representing the achievements of Greco-Roman science. He is also a well known representative of Greek astronomy. He was great at observing things from a theoretical and logical point of view. His work is very famous to be appreciated by the Arabs and the Europeans, however his famous works and theory faced a major backlash. The Ptolemic system and geocentric model are known to face several backlash during that time.
In the world of science, his major contribution has been through the Greco-Roman science, which led to the evolution of the theory of geocentric model. This geocentric model considered the centre of the earth as the model of the universe. This was his major discovery, in which he wrote down about the science and universe in which the earth is considered be in a static position, as consequently it was occupied as the centre of the universe. All the other celestial bodies like the sun, the moon, the stars and the planets revolve around the earth. He had two basic questions in his mind regarding the motions of the planets and also the planet retro gradation, also the different duration of sidereal revolutions. According to his theory, he also illustrated that the celestial bodies lead to increase they produce when they retrograde, and the different duration of sidereal revolutions. Accordingly, it can be said that each of the planets move through two or more spheres, out of which one of them is centred in the earth and the other one is the epicycle that is to fit in the deferent. Ptolemy was an astrologer who was found to believe that astrology was a legitimate but also an inaccurate science. However, all his scientific approach is considered to be quite logical and practical, he thought that astrology was useful but should not be trusted completely. So, it can be said that his theory accounted mathematically for the planetary movements also the movements of the Sun, moon and the stars. The major drawback of Ptolemy theory is that he considered Earth to be the centre of the universe, which is entirely wrong theoretical basis, which was further proved by Galiloe that nothing but sun is the centre of the universe or better as the sun is the centre of the solar system and all the planets revolve around the sun which their own speed and earth being one of them. He used his own homemade telescope. He further illustrated about the epicycles. Another crucial Claudius’s contribution in the world of astronomy would be his model of the Universe, where he applied astronomy and, which consequently resulted in the creation of the horoscopes. He used his amps and determined the use of the longitude and latitudes which are the lines and specifications for finding several places on the earth.
Apart from the latitudinal and longitudinal lines he also determined the laws reflection and refraction through the study off optical science. Through his geocentric system, he is well known to influence the thoughts of the 16th century. He also in introduced several terms as parallel, meridian and several other terms. His other work of science have been much appreciated. His Geocentric theory has been wronged by Nicolaus Corpenicus, which was further corrected by Heliocentric theory and this theory has been found to prove the Geocentric theory where geocentric theory states that the Earth is the centre body of the universe, which is wrong, and later, the Heliocentric theory found that the Sun is the centre of the universe or the centre of the solar system, which is a hot ball of gases. All the other planets are found to rotate around the Sun with its own speed around their orbits. This is found to be the major drawback of Claudius’s theory and it has also resulted in gaining a lot of claims to Galileo. When he started with the incorrect assumptions while summing up this theory, he combined the things he saw like the movement of star with mathematics especially geometrically, in order to find out the movement of other planets. The Aristotle and the Ptolemy civilizations mainly supported his theory that is wrongly proved.
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