Definition of centromere:
A centromere is defined as a specialized sequence of DNA of a chromosome that is used to link a pair of sister chromatids. During mitosis, the spindle fibers get attached to the centromere with the help of kinetochore. Centromeres are regarded as the genetic locus that directs the way by which the chromosomes behave. The physical role of centromere is to act as the assembly site of the kinetochores which is a high complex structure of multi-protein that is responsible for the segregation of chromosomes.
Structure of centromere:
The centromere is the region in chromosome that gets attached to the spindle fiber at the metaphase stage of mitosis or meiosis and moves around the spindle pole at the anaphase stage while pulling the rest of the chromosomes behind it. The centromere can be often distinguished at the metaphase state as a thin constriction or sometimes as the condensed chromosome which is flexible and free to bend. The two chromatids that are present at the metaphase stage of the chromosome which gets usually divided when held at the centromere region. At the core of the centromere, sometimes there appears a clear preparation of chromatids. The position of centromere is constant in nature but varies between chromosome where they are called as metacentric, telocentric, acrocentric depending on the central position of the centromere that is less central, near the end or at the terminal. With all these functionalities, it is important that each chromosome must have at least one centromere.
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