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Define Organelles: Identify Membrane-Bound Organelles Found In Eukaryotic Cells

Referencing Styles : Harvard | Pages : 5

1. Define organelles. How can one identify membrane-bound organelles found in eukaryotic cells? 

In the aspect of biology, an organelle is defined as a subunit within any cell that would perform a specific function. Organelles are enclosed in a special form within their own lipid bilayers. They are also known as membrane-bound organelles that would be spatially function within distinct form of functional units. This would be formed without a surrounding form of lipid bilayer and are also known as non-membrane bound organelles.

An organelle is defined as a tiny form of cellular structure that would be performing some form of specific functions within any cell. The organelles would be further embedded in between the cytoplasm of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In the complex kind of eukaryotic cells, the organelles would be composed and enclosed within their particular membrane. The organelles have a certain form of specialization that would be analogous to the internal organs of the body. They would also be responsible for performing important functions that would be highly necessary for performing normal form of cellular operations.

The organelles have a great form of responsibility, which would include the generation of energy within the cell and controlling the reproduction and growth of cell. Some of the main examples of organelles includes the following: the Golgi complex, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria and ribosomes. The prokaryotic cells do not comprise of membrane-based organelles. These cells would contain some kind of non-membranous organelles, which includes ribosomes, circular DNA structures known as plasmids and flagella.

The membrane-bound organelles that would be found within the eukaryotic cells could be identified in the following ways:

1. The eukaryotic cells are generally larger than the prokaryotic cells and consist of membrane-bound organelles, true nucleus and rod-shaped organelles.

2. The cell DNA is housed by the nucleus and would direct the synthesis of ribosomes and proteins.

3. The animal cells comprise of lysosomes and centrosome while the plant cells do not comprise of the both.

4. The eukaryotic cells comprise of different kind of complex cells in which the genetic material would be organized into a membrane-bound nuclei.

5. The eukaryotic cells have surrounding plasma membrane that is also known as the cell membrane.

The eukaryotic cell comprise of different forms of organelles that might also include the chloroplasts, mitochondria, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus.

2. Describe the basic composition of cytoplasm

In biology, the cytoplasm can be defined as a material present within a cell, which would be enclosed within the cell membrane except the cell nucleus. The material that is present within the nucleus are also present within the nuclear membrane is also known as nucleoplasm. The primary components that are comprised within the cytoplasm are known as cytosol that is also considered as a gel-like substance. These are also known as organelles that are also comprised or the internal sub-structures of the cell and various inclusions of cytoplasm. The cytoplasm also comprise of colourless fluids and 80% water.

The term was proposed and introduced by Rudolf von Kolliker in the year 1863. It can be defined as a synonym for Protoplasm. It was later meant as the organelles and cell substance that is present outside of the nucleus. The physical properties present within the cytoplasm have been discussed in the recent years. The physical structure present within the cytoplasm is considered to be variable. In frequent times, there is a quick form of diffusion present within the cell thus making the cytoplasm to resemble with a colloidal solution. There are certain parts within the cytoplasm that would be present at a closer position to the plasma membrane. They are stiff within the regions in which the interior would resemble free of the flowing liquids.

The jelly-like fluid that would fit within the cell is known as cytoplasm. It also comprise of salt and water. The cytoplasm is also present within the cell membrane based on all form of cell types. It also contains all forms of cell parts and organelles. The cytoplasm has different kind of functions that are performed by them within the cell. The most valuable activities that are performed within the cell and which occur are also known as cytoplasm. The cytoplasm also comprise of molecules that would comprise of enzymes and are responsible for the breaking down of waste. It also helps in metabolic activity.

The cytoplasm is also mainly responsible for giving a certain shape to the cell. It would also help in filling out the cell and keeping the organelles in proper place. Without the cytoplasm, the cell would become in a deflated position and thus the materials that are present inside would not pass in an easy manner. The cytosol is one of the part of the cytoplasm that would not comprise of organelles. Instead of the cytosol, it would comprise of boundaries within a matrix that would fill most of the part within the cell, which would also comprise of organelles.

3. Describe the structure and function of the nucleus and nuclear membrane

The structure of the nucleus is considered as the largest organelle present within the animal cells. In the mammalian cells, the average kind of diameter present within the nucleus is considered to be at an approximate range of 6 micrometres (µm). It occupies most of the 10% of the entire volume of the cell.

 

The nuclear envelope that is also known as the nuclear membrane comprises of two kinds of cellular membrane. They are known as the outer membrane and inner membrane. They are arranged in a parallel position to one another and are thus separated at a distance of 10 to 50 nanometres (nm). The shape of the nucleus is nearly round in shape. It might also be oval and disc shape that would also depend on the type of cell.

The functions of the nucleus are discussed as follows:

1.  They control the heredity characteristics present within an organism.

2. The nucleus is responsible for the synthesis of proteins, growth of cells, division of cells and differentiating among them.

3. It is a certain site for the process of transcription present within the messenger RNS and are also produced within the protein synthesis.

The nuclear membrane comprises of two membranes. They would comprise of an inner membrane and an outer membrane. Each of the membrane would be composed of phospholipids that would be arranged within a bilayer. This would mean that the entire form of nuclear membrane that would have four rows of phospholipids. The outer and inner membranes would be further be separated with the help of the peri-nuclear space.

 

On the other hand, the outer nuclear membrane would be continuous in nature and would comprise of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. It is an organelle that would be important in the making of transporting proteins. Both of the outer nuclear membrane and rough endoplasmic reticulum would be covered in the ribosomes. These are considered of the actual sites within the protein synthesis.

The function of the nuclear membrane are comprised of:

1. The nuclear membrane are formed of tiny holes that would be identified in the form of nuclear pores. The pores would be helpful for enabling the content to flow in and out of the nucleus. It would also be helpful for connecting the inner membrane and outer membrane.

2. The surface area of the nuclear membrane would extend and double within the nuclear pores that would be present within the interphase part of the division of cells.

3. The nuclear membrane helps in creating a shield over the nucleus present within a double membrane that would comprise of many kind of pores. They would also help in controlling the intersection of the macromolecules present within the RNA and proteins. They also help in permitting the free passage of water, ATP, ions and small molecules. The nuclear membrane would also be helpful for controlling the information flow within the cell and it would be conducted by the macromolecules.  

4. Describe the structure and function of ribosomes

The ribosomes are discussed as a cell structure that would make up of protein. The protein is needed for performing many kind of functions within the cell that includes the repairing functions of damage or giving a proper form of direction towards the different chemical processes. The ribosomes would be found to be floating within the cytoplasm or it might be attached with the endoplasmic reticulum.

The structure of the ribosomes comprises of the following structure:

1. The ribosomes is situated within the two areas within the cytoplasm.

2. The ribosomes have been seen to be scattered present within the cytoplasm. They are also in connection with the endoplasmic reticulum.

3. Whenever the ribosomes would be joined to the ER, they would be known as the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

4. The bound and free ribosomes are alike in structure and thus are in association with the protein synthesis.

5. The ribosomes have been seen to be present within the chloroplasts within the mitochondria of the eukaryotes. They are comprised of the little and big subunits and are also composed of the proteins within the 70S particle.

6. They share a centred structure that would be similar to the structure of the ribosomes despite of the changes present within the size.

7.  The RNA within the bigger kind of ribosomes would be compared with the numerous form of continuous infusions. They help in the creation of centred structure without performing any kind of alteration and disturbing.

The functions of the ribosomes are discussed as follows:

1. They would assemble the amino acids in order to help in forming of specific form of proteins. These proteins have been extremely essential for the carrying of cellular activities.

2. The process of producing deoxyribonucleic acid, proteins would be helpful for producing of the mRNA based on the process of DNA transcription.

3. The genetic message derived from the mRNA would be in the process of translation into proteins during the entire phase of translation of DNA.

4. The certain kind of proteins that would be synthesized with the presence of ribosomes have been present within the cytoplasm. They are used within the cytoplasm. The proteins that are produced by the ribosomes would also be transported outside of the cell.

5. The mRNA would be in the process of synthesis within the nucleus. They would then be transported towards the cytoplasm based on further kind of process present within the protein synthesis.

5. Describe the structure and function of mitochondria

The mitochondria are comprised of the organelles that are present within the eukaryotic cells that would help in producing the adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The main energy present within the molecule would be used within the cell. The mitochondria comprise of two layer of membranes. These are known as inner membrane and outer membrane. These membranes are also composed phospholipid layers similar to the outer membrane of the cell. The outer membrane help in covering the surface of the mitochondrion. The inner membranes are mainly located within the folds and are known as the cristae. The folds help in increasing the surface area of the membrane.

This would be comprised of the inner membrane that is responsible for holding the proteins that are mainly involved with the transport chain of the electron. There are certain processes that are performed by the mitochondria, which are some form of chemical reactions. The chemical reactions are performed by the mitochondria including several other kind of functions. An increased form of surface area help in the creation of more kind of space based on allowing for the creation of different kind of reactions. They also aid in increasing the output of the mitochondria. The space present between the inner membranes and outer membranes are known as the inter-membrane space. The space present within the inner membrane is known as matrix.

The primary function of the mitochondria is that they help in the production of the ATP through the different processes performed with the help of cellular respiration. The citric acid cycle, which is also known as the Krebs cycle would take place within the mitochondria. The cycle helps in bringing the involvement of the oxidation of pyruvate that would come from the glucose. They help in forming the molecule acetyl-CoA. The Acetyl-CoA is oxidized and then the ATP would be produced.

The amount of mitochondria present within the cell depend on the amount of energy that is needed by the cell in order to produce. The other functions of the mitochondria is that they help in the storing of calcium that would further be helpful for maintaining of the homeostasis based on maintaining the calcium levels present within the cell. They also help in regulating the metabolism level of the cells. They also play certain roles present within the apoptosis, signalling of the cell and performing thermogenesis.

6. Describe the structure and function of peroxisomes

The primary structure of the peroxisomes is that they mainly vary in the aspect of size, shape and the number that would mainly depend on the amount of energy present within the requirements of the cell. They are mainly composed of the phospholipid bilayer that would also comprise of the membrane-bound proteins. The enzymes that are mainly involved present within the lipid metabolism and are synthesized based on free ribosomes. They are selectively imported to the peroxisomes. The phospholipids present within the peroxisomes are usually in the process of synthesis in the form of Endoplasmic reticulum.

Most of the organelles are mainly created based on budding of the endomembrane system that would be not be in the case of peroxisomes. The peroxisomes that have been created based on the intake of lipids and proteins derived from the cytoplasm within the cell. The cytoplasm is a jelly like fluid present within the cell based on which there would be a complete suspension of the organelles. The invasion of lipids and proteins that would comprise of the peroxisomes would further grow in size. Once the peroxisomes have grown in a large manner, it would divide through the process of fission and thus create two different forms of peroxisomes. T

The peroxisomes are thus created in this kind of manner. This is mainly due to the reason that they do not comprise of their own form of DNA based on giving instructions. These instructions are based on designing of proteins that would need to function properly. Hence, the peroxisomes should be create that would contain each of the proteins based on their need. Since the peroxisomes would not be create in their present form and from the endomembrane system, hence they would be bound to form a single membrane. They would instead form a double membrane unlike most of the organelles. The final result comprises of a single membrane-bound organelles that would be comprised of proteins and lipids that would further act as enzymes.

The peroxisomes derives their name from the usage of molecular oxygen based on the metabolic processes. These organelles would be in large association with the processing of reactive oxygen species and lipid metabolism. Within the lipid metabolism, most of the peroxisomes have to deal with the β–oxidation consisting of fatty acids, cholesterol levels of biosynthesis, mobilization of lipids in seeds and steroid hormone synthesis. In case of plants, peroxisomes plays a major kind of role for the germination of seeds and performing photosynthesis. During the process of germination of seed, the stored amount of fat is mobilized based on certain form of anabolic reactions. This would further lead towards the formation of carbohydrates.

7. Describe the structure, function, and components of the endomembrane system

The endomembrane system can be defined as the membranous component present within the eukaryotic cell. The cytoplasm present within the cell comprises of a system based on membranous organelles and are suspended within it. The organelles are further termed as a kind of system that have certain different kind of functions and structures that would be highly essential towards the working of the cell. All forms of organelles that are present within the cell would work in a coordinated manner. They would include the vacuoles, cell membrane, lysosomes, nuclear membrane, vesicles, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. Since the different kind of functions based within the organelles such as chloroplasts, mitochondria are not present in a coordinated manner.

The certain components that are present within the endomembrane system are comprised of the following:

1. Endoplasmic Reticulum – The ER helps in the representation of small form of tubular structures that would be scattered all over the cytoplasm. It would also help in dividing of the cytoplasm into two forms of distinct compartments. They are known as extra luminal and luminal. The ER would be present within the cytoplasm and would comprise of two forms.

2. Golgi Bodies – They are also known as Camilo Golgi, who was the scientist who discovered. The Golgi bodies are certain form of membranous disc that would consist of sacs or cisternae. They comprise of a range of diameter that range between 0.5 – 1.0 µm and would also consist of stacked like parallel lumps. The Golgi bodies mainly serve the purpose of a packaging centre that would comprise of the endomembrane secretions that are also known as proteins.

3. Lysosomes - They are also defined as ‘suicidal bags of the cell’. They are also known as membrane-bound vesicular structures that would be comprised of the hydrolytic enzymes. They are thus capable of performing digestion of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids.

4. Vacuoles – The voluminous vacuole present within the membrane-bound space present within the cytoplasm. They occupy more than 90% of the volume based on plant cell. They contain sap, water, excretory materials that would mostly be useless for the functioning of the cell. The outer membranes within the vacuoles are also regarded as tonoplast. They help in facilitating the transport of ions against the concentration of gradients present within the vacuole. The contractile vacuoles that are mainly present within the amoeba help in facilitating the excretion. They also support the transportation of engulfed food through the food vacuoles present in some other kind of protists.

8. Describe the structure and functions of vesicles

Vesicles are certain compartments that are formed of a certain form of lipid bilayer. They would be helpful for the separation of contents that are derived from the cytoplasm. These vesicles could also be derived from the fluid-based of the extracellular environment. The vesicles comprise of either gases or liquids. They would also perform wide-ranging functions across the cells that are normally present in the living world. The word ‘vesicle’ is derived from ‘vesicula’, which is a Latin word. The meaning of the word is ‘small bladder’. It also refers to certain blisters that are formed within the body or certain form of gas bubbles that are present in volcanic rocks.

Certain examples of vesicles are mainly found in archea, bacteria, animals and plants. Vesicles are present in each cell and they form different kind of functions. They are also present within every cell and thus have different forms of vesicles, which would be involved in several kind of roles.

The primary function of the vacuoles is that they would be highly involved in the optimization process of photosynthesis and buoyancy. They would also be responsible for performing intercellular signalling and exchange of materials within the cell. They also perform intercellular digestion, secretion and transport of materials within the cell. They have the capability to carry any form of cargo that would comprise of pathogens, large apoptotic blebs, waste materials and biopolymers. They would also be extremely necessary for forming and maintaining the plasma membrane, the internal cytoplasmic structure and extracellular matrix. The vesicles also play a crucial role based on functioning the cells. These cells are mainly responsible for extracellular digestion include the lining of digestive organs that are in relation to the salivary glands.

An organism comprising of vesicles would be able to maintain the homeostasis based on coordination of several kind of actions from different organs through the endocrine and nervous systems. Both of the organ systems would need a proper kind of functioning based within the vesicular network for the purpose of accomplishing each of the tasks.

9. Identify and describe the key organelles present only in animal cells, including centrosomes and lysosomes

The centrosomes and lysosomes are present within the animal cells but are not present within the plant cells. The lysosomes are considered as the animal cells that is also known as the garbage disposal. The plant cells perform the same kind of function that take place within the vacuoles. The animal cells comprise of a certain set of organelles that is different from the plant cells.

A lysosome can be defined as a membrane-bound organelle that is mainly found within the animal cells. They are also known as spherical vesicles. They comprise of the hydrolytic enzymes. They can further break the different forms of biomolecules. A lysosome would have a certain form of specification and composition. They would comprise of membrane proteins and luminal proteins. Besides the factor of degradation of polymers, the lysosome would mainly be involved within the processes of the cell. They would also include the process of secretion, repairing of the plasma membrane, signalling of the cells and metabolism of energy.

The centrosome can be defined as an organelles that would mainly be responsible for serving the main form of microtubule organizing centre that is present within the animal cell. The centrosome would be thought to have an evolving factor present within the metazoan lineage present within the eukaryotic cells. The centrosomes have a certain form of relation in association with the nuclear membrane during the entire stages of prophase. In the process of mitosis, the nuclear membrane would break further. The centrosome would comprise of nucleated microtubules that have the capability of interact with the various chromosomes based ion building the mitotic spindle.

10. Identify and describe the key organelles present only in plant cells, including chloroplasts and vacuoles

The chloroplasts are defined as the producers of food based within the cell. The organelles can only be found within the cells of the plants. They would also comprise of protists that are known as algae. The animal cells would not have chloroplasts. The primary function of the chloroplast is to work in order to convert the energy of the light from the Sun into sugar, which could be further used by the cells. The entire process is known as photosynthesis. It would mostly depend on the little kind of green chlorophyll molecules present within each of the chloroplast.

Most of the organelles are mostly common in both of the plant cells and animal cells. However, most of the plant cells consist some kind of features that are not be present within the animal cells. These features include the presence of a central vacuole, cell wall and certain form of plastids known as chloroplasts. These chloroplasts are considered as the organelle that are mainly responsible for performing photosynthesis. They are also responsible for capturing the intense light energy generated from the sun. They thus make use of it with carbon dioxide and water in order to certain type of food known as sugar for the use by plants.

Most of the mature form of plant cells comprise of a certain form of central vacuole that would occupy more than 40% of the volume of cells. The central vacuole have the capability of occupying more than 90% of the volume contained in certain cells. The central vacuole is mainly surrounded by the membrane that is known as tonoplast. The central vacuole performs certain form of functions. Aside from the facility of storage, the primary role of the vacuole is to maintain the intense of turgor pressure present against the cell wall. The proteins that would be present within the tonoplast help in controlling the flow of water in and out from the vacuole

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