Et al. is used in a sentence in place of ‘and’ or ‘between the authors’. Here, using parenthesis is the symbol for using et al. From the second instances, only the authors’ initials are used along with et al. As a matter of specification, et al is a substitution for the inclusions within a sentence. In the dictionary, the words, which appear closer to et al are etagere, e-tail, etain blue, et alia, etalon, eta meson and others. The alternative forms of et al is & al. Distinctions in the use of et al is sometimes ignored in the casual cases. The abbreviations are synonymously used in accordance to the context in which it is used.
Al is considered to the short form for alia and consists of various forms of expression in the process of writing styles. The period indicates its usage as an abbreviation. According to the Latin meaning, et al signifies ‘and’, which nullifies the need for period. In spite of the Latin origin, there is no need for italics. If the example of blogs are considered, then et al is used as follows in the APA style in case of the blogs:
If a source has more than three authors, only the first authors’ last name is given and the rest is expressed as et al in the process of in-texting. This is also followed in the presentation of the reference list in the MLA style. For example, when electronic sources are to be used, et al is used after the end of the sentence for indicating the works presented by the authors.
4. Do you use et al in reference list?
No, I do not use et al in the reference list. Instead, I use et al while making in-text citations for indicating my acknowledgement for the sources referred. However, I ensure the fact that all of the authors are referred, whose works I am using in my research project.
Etc refers to the list of things and et al refers to the list of authors. Etc is used in both formal and informal writing. On the contrary, et al is mostly seen in the bibliography of the projects. Etc is the abbreviation for et cetera, which means ‘and the rest’. It is used when reference is being made to a number of things. For examples, I will buy vegetable, fruits, chocolate, pastries etc from the supermarket while returning home.
When a group of students are assigned a project, they use et al for producing their academic writing. This usage is expressed at two places, one in the in-text citations and in the reference list or works cited.
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