Zygomatic process can be defined as any of the bony processes which enter into or strengthen the arch of Zygomatic. These processes usually articulate with the cheekbone. The Zygomatic processes are divided into numerous categories, these categories are as follows Zygomatic process of maxilla, Zygomatic process of frontal bone and Zygomatic process of temporal bone. The Zygomatic process of the frontal bone as well as the zygomatic arch, this forms the dorsal orbital rim and it is prone to the fracture along with resultant opening into the frontal as well as caudal maxillary sinuses. Epistaxis could occur when the turbinate bones are fractured as well as nasolacrimal duct obstruction could result from a lacrimal bone fracture.
In a certain retrospective study of around 18 horses diagnosed with the orbital fractures which were confirmed by skull radiographs or the CT, around 56 percent of people had orbital rim fractures and besides this around 72 percent people had open fractures, around 83 percent of fractures had been displaced. The very common fracture site along with 56 percent in this specific location. SURGICAL Zygomatic process involves the removal or repositioning of numerous bone fragments with the use of digital retraction as well as bone hooks had been performed in the 83 percent of these cases. The globe had been retained in around 89 percent of cases and had been visual in around 78 percent, this suggests that the horses that have been diagnosed with the orbital fractures have a favourable prognosis for the vision. The infra orbital foramen is located above the zygomatic process of the maxilla about 2 to 3 cm from the medical vertical line of the face. This orifice is more important that the supra orbital foramen. The infra orbital technique is performed externally on the face and some of the fibres are accessed intra orally on the interior of the cheek.
The mastoid process is located in the posterior portion of the temporal bone. It is one of the two projections that had been situated behind the ear. The mastoid process provides a certain attachment for certain muscles of the neck. Mastoiditis is a bacterial infection of the mastoid air cells surrounding the inner and middle ear. The mastoid bone, which is full of these air cells, is part of the temporal bone of the skull. The mastoid air cells are thought to protect the delicate structures of the ear, regulate ear pressure and possibly protect the temporal bone during trauma. When the mastoid cells become very much infected or inflamed often as a result of a certain unresolved middle ear infection, mastoiditis can develop. This is because numerous vital structures pass through the mastoid, infection might spread outside of the bone of mastoid and hence cause serious health complications.
Acute mastoiditis typically affect numerous children. Adults could also be affected by this. Some of the people have chronic mastoiditis, this is a certain ongoing infection that is occurred in the middle ear and mastoid that causes persistent drainage from the portion of the ear. As per the above discussion, mastoidities often develop as a certain result of a middle ear infection. Bacteria from the middle ear could travel in the air cells of the mastoid bone. Less commonly a growing collection of the skin cells is called a cholesteatoma might block the drainage of the ear which further leads to the mastoiditis. The symptoms of Mastoiditis include causing neurodocrine tumours. These are variable in extent. In infancy they do not exist and the infantile type of the mastoid without any air cells might persist into the adult life in around 20 percent of people. Besides this, huge cells might occupy most of the mastoid process and hence extend into the adjoining bones. The overall layer of bone that separates the air cells from the posterior cranial fossa and the sigmoid sinus is thin or even deficient in numerous places.
The styloid process or a particular part of squamous temporal bones is a slender pointed part of the temporal bone. This project anteroinferiorly from the interior surface of the temporal bone. This tends to serve as an anchor point for numerous several muscles associated with the tongue as well as larynx, styloglossue muscle, stylohyoid muscle, stylopharyngeus muscle, style mandibular ligament. It is very important to note that these structures along with the styloid process itself, tend to develop from the second branchial arch and hence combined from the styloid apparatus. It should be noted that almost all the structures along with the styloid process itself, develop from the second branchial arch and combined from the styloid apparatus. Morphological variants has around four types, these types include normal, elongated, pseudo articulated and segmented. The styloid process (SP) is a cylindrical, long cartilaginous bone located on the temporal bone. The normal SP length is approximately 20–30 mm. The styloid process elongation (SPE) can be assumed if either the SP or the adjacent stylohyoid ligament ossification shows an overall length in excess of 30 mm.
Elongated SP is known as Eagle’s syndrome when it causes clinical symptoms as neck and cervicofacial pain. It is supposed that this symptoms as well as signs are due to the compression of the SP on some neural as well as vascular structures. It may also cause stroke due to the compression of carotid arteries. This syndrome is diagnosed by both radio graphical and physical examination. Instead of many hypotheses and studies, the exact etiology of elongated SP and the role of ectopic calcification are unknown. Ectopic calcification should have a role for the elongation of the SP. abnormal calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and vitamin D metabolism is very common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Therefore, this particular case in nonosseous soft tissue due to the abnormal serum Ca and P levels is associated with this particular disorder. EC due to the abnormality n this particular concept of metabolism which is related to the duration of dialysis is also very important for the calcification.
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