The difference in various fluids and gas is usually measured by comparing the subject to the outside source with the help of a manometer. The working principle of a manometer is based on the hydrostatic equilibrium principles, and specific use of the device is to measure the exerted static pressure of various gas or liquid. Most of the times, the outside source is the normal atmosphere of the earth. The origin of the word manometer is from the Greek word 'manós' and ‘métron’. The meaning of the word 'manós’ is something, which is rare or thin. The theory of the hydrostatic equilibrium affirms that in still fluid, the pressure at every point of that fluid is equal to the other points of pressure. The overlying fluid’s weight determines the value of a certain point. The simple type of a manometer is in the form of a U-shaped tube, which consists of a fluid. The fluid used in the tube is incompressible such as mercury and water. The best advantage of the device is that the device is very inexpensive, and the device does not need to be calibrated. The formula that is used or applied in the devices is P=F/A. Here in the formula, the term P refers to the pressure that needs to be calculated. The basic SI unit to measure pressure is in Newtons/square meter. The term Pascal can also be used as Pa is equal to one newton per square meter. The term F refers to the force that usually acts normally to the area of a surface. In manometer, the surface is of mercury or water. Finally, the term A refers to the size of the area where the applied force works. Thus, the pressure that needs to be calculated is determined by the force amount and the size of the area where the force is working. Hence, a given force will have more effect on a small area if the same force is applied to a larger area.
The following section is the detailed discussion of the working procedure of the manometer. The U-shaped tube of the glass has two ends. One of the ends is completely open to the outside world or atmosphere, and the other end is connected to a chamber, which contains the gas that needs to be measured. The bottom of the U-shaped tube is usually filled with some responsive liquid such as water of mercury, which does not have any effect of pressure. After adding the gas to the chamber, the gas side of the tube is sealed to hold gas beside the mercury. The atmospheric pressure outside equalizes the mercury in both the sides of the U-shaped tube. After adding the gas, on the other side, the pressure is exerted on the mercury by the gas. When the pressure of the gas becomes equal to the pressure of the air or atmosphere outside, the mercury or water inside the tube remains at the same position. Both sides of the tube get the same level of mercury or water. However, in the case of gas with higher pressure, put more pressure on one side of the tube, making the level of mercury or water having raised on the other side than normal level. The sealed side of the tube will have a lower level than the side of the tube open to the atmosphere. When the calculation of difference of the heights between two levels is measured, the amount of the pressure that the used gas has exerted is revealed. The difference has to be added to the pressure of atmosphere to find the exact amount of the pressure. This amount can be higher or lower than the atmospheric pressure.
However, not every time the pressure of the gas is higher than the pressure of the atmosphere. When the pressure of the atmosphere outside is greater than the pressure of the used gas inside the tube, then the gas-side of the U-shaped tube has a higher level of water or mercury. The other side that is the side of the atmosphere has a lower level of water or mercury. In this situation, the difference has to be calculated in the same way between the two different levels of the used liquid. After the difference has been found out, the amount has to be subtracted from the atmospheric pressure to find the exact pressure of the used gas. Not every place of the Earth has the same amount of atmospheric pressure as the atmospheric pressure depends on various factors, including temperature and elevation of a certain place from the sea level. Thus, the difference needs to be calculated with the help of average atmospheric pressure; otherwise, the correct result will not come out as different place will give different results.
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