An electron is a subatomic particle, which is negatively charged. It can be bound to an atom’s nucleus or it can be free. Electrons exist of various radiuses in a spherical shell of an atom. It represents the level of energy. The energy in the electron depends on the spherical shell. The current flowing results move from one atom to another through the electrons in the electrical conductors. Generally, it also moves from the negative to the positive electric poles. Sometimes, the movement becomes more elaborative to imagine the current as the current flow of the electron deficiencies from one atom to another. In a semiconductor, there is an atom of electron deficient, which is known as hole. From the positive pole to the negative poles, the hole moves. Charge on the single electron is known as electrical charge of the unit. It analyzes the negative polarity. The electron charge is equal. On the other side, there is a positive charge on the hole or on the proton. Electron quantity charge is not calculated on one single electron, as it is extremely small charge. The standardized unit of the electrical charge is coulomb, which is denoted as C. Coulomb represents approximately 6.24 * 1018 electrons. The electron charge is denoted by e. Electron charge is approximately 1.60 * 10-19 C. the mass of the electron is denoted as me. the mass of the electron is near about 9.11 * 10-31 kilogram.
The carbon is different within the elements. It forms a strong bond chain, which is sealed off by the atoms of hydrogen. The hydrocarbons are mainly used as fuels. These hydrocarbons are extracted as fuels of fossils such as oil, natural gases and coal. An important but small fraction is used for the producing industry of petrochemical such as paints, polymers, plastics, solvents etc. in the metal smelting; the impure carbons are used in a form of coke and charcoal. It is very important in steel and iron industry. In furnace lining and electronic motor, graphite is used to make brushes. For filtration and purification, activated charcoals are used. It is also can be found in the kitchen extractor hood or in the respirators. The uses of carbon fiber are very strong. It is a very lightweight material. It can be used in fishing rods, airplanes, rockets, rackets and skis. For drilling and cutting rocks, industrial diamonds are very useful. For protecting the blades of the razors, diamond film is used. The current invention of the nanotubes of carbons, atom-thin sheet or other fullerenes has changed. It made the changes in hardware developments.
The natural mixer of the carbon dioxide was 280 ppm in the atmosphere of earth near about 150 years ago. Carbon dioxide permits the visible lights to be access in the atmosphere. It prevents many effects of greenhouse effects. This action keeps the earth warm so that the life on the earth can be sustained. Somehow, the greenhouse effect has enhanced in the earth as the human is making the carbon dioxide rise. These things are affecting the climate and our environment.
Oxygen is a chemical element. The symbol of the oxygen is denoted as O. the atomic number of oxygen is 8. It means that the nucleus of the oxygen has 8 protons. The neutron number always varies depending on the isotope. The unchanged isotope consists of 8, 9 or 10 neutrons. In the periodic table, the oxygen falls on the chalcogen group. An oxidizing agent and greatly reactive nonmetal form oxide using the most elements and the compounds. After helium and hydrogen, oxygen is the most abundant element, which falls on third position. A pair of atoms of an element form dioxygen by binding process. It is an odorless and colorless process with the O2 formula. Oxygen gas of diatomic consists 20.8% of atmosphere of the earth. As the oxide is including with the compounds, near about half of earth’s crust is made up by the element. In the cellular respiration, dioxygen is used. Many key processes of the organic molecules are also used in cellular respiration. Many living organisms are containing oxygen and the other molecules such as nucleic acids, fast, carbohydrates and proteins and the other main constituent such as teeth, bone, animal shell etc. Mass of the living organisms is oxygen, which they can use as water. Water is the main constituent for the life.
Oxygen and carbons are very similar in some ways. Oxygen and carbon both are elements. These are the basic blocks of building all the matter. Oxygen and carbon both have electrons and protons and they contain neutrons. As they are element, both are present in the periodic table. The number of the oxygen in the periodic table is 8 and the number of the carbon in the periodic table is 6. The weight, density and the atom numbers depend on many things. To describe the weight of different things ‘mass’ is used. Weight can be changed and it depends on the gravity of the earth. Mass is used to describe the weight of any object. The weight of the object can vary on any other planet other than earth but the mass will be same everywhere.
The bond of carbon dioxide is bond of polar covalent between the oxygen and the carbon. Oxygen consists of 6 valence electrons. Oxygen is willing to share two of its electrons with the carbon while the bonding with it. While the bonding, the oxygen leaves the electrons of 4 non-bonding oxygen in 2 lone pairs that is :O: or it can share the two pairs electrons to form functional group of carbonyl, that is =O:. One of the representatives of the bonds is –OH, which describes alcohol like ethanol in the fuel and the beverage. The other representative of the bond is C=O, which describes ketone.
2 valence electrons in oxygen is needed as the carbon consists of 4 electrons and the oxygen consists of 6 valence electrons. Therefore, one oxygen will be shared with the carbon and the second oxygen will share it is another two valence electron with the electrons of the carbon.
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