The protein synthesis is one of the most important biological process where individual cell produces specific protein to function. All proteins synthesized according to the instruction carried by the DNA nucleotide sequence, which is unique individual every individual cell. The helps to build the structure as well as supports the immune system. The protein synthesis occurs in the nucleus, ribosomes and the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The protein synthesis is a two step process which consists of transcription and translation.
Transcription is the process where the DNA is copied to mRNA, which carries the required information needed for protein synthesis. During the transcription process the molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) is synthesized according to the instructions provided by the DNA. The transcription takes place in two major steps. At first with the involvement of RNA polymerase enzymes pre-messenger RNA is formed. The process is based on the Watson-Crick pairing and the resultant is a single strand of RNA which is the reverse complement of the original DNA sequence. Then the pre-messenger RNA is modified in order to produce desired mRNA molecule in the phenomenon called RNA splicing.
The process by which mRNA directs protein synthesis with the assistant of transfer RNA (tRNA) is called translation. During translation, a polypeptide chain will be produced according to the instruction provided by the mRNA. Here the messenger RNA (mRNA) is not directly involved in protein synthesis for which transfer RNA (tRNA) is required for this.
In prokaryotes, the transcription and translation occur in the compartment- the cytosol. Ribosomes are the sites of translation.
Protein Synthesis in Eukaryotes
In eukaryotes, mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus from pre mRNA molecules and thereafter shipped to the cytoplasm where the translation occurs. The post transcription modification refers to the molecular mechanisms which lead to the production of the mRNA from pre-mRNA.
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