Gravity or gravitation is a phenomenon, which occur naturally for all objects having energy or mass for all heavenly bodies including galaxies, stars, planets and light also are attracted towards one another. Here, on earth gravity provides weight to physical objects and the gravity of the moon causes oceanic tides. The attracting presence of matter in the original gaseous state, which is present in the universe caused coalescing that created stars to come together to form galaxies, which proves the fact that gravity is actively present and responsible for the creation of large-scale unison of heavenly bodies forming groups of galaxies in the universe. The range of gravity is infinite, however the effect of gravities presence weakens at a rapid rate for objects that are distant.
The description of gravity is provided most accurately by Albert Einstein, that stated gravity is not a force, but a consequence of curvature of space time that occurred due to the distribution of mass in an uneven manner. The extreme example of this curvature in space time is a black hole, whose event horizon cannot be escaped by light also. The approximate definition of gravity can be found in Newton’s law of universal gravitation, where it is described as a force that cause two bodies to attracted to one another, where the force is proportional to the product of the mass of those bodies and inversely proportional to the square of distance between the two objects. Gravity is considered to be the weakest of the four fundamental interactions and has no significant influence at the level of subatomic particles. The macroscopic level of interaction is due to the formation, trajectory and shape of heavenly bodies. Examples can be found where gravity cause Earth and other planets to move around the sun, moon to orbit around the Earth forming the tides in seas and oceans, evolution of Solar System, galaxies and the stars.
Sir Isaac Newton compared the moons acceleration to acceleration of objects on Earth. The particles of matter attract each other using the gravitational force, Newton’s laws inform us regarding the strength of this attraction. The equation is described where Force (F) acting between two objects is directly proportional with the product of mass of the two objects ( mass of the first object is considered as m1 and mass of the second object is considered as m2 ) that is divided with the square of the distance between the two objects. The other term in the given equation G, is considered as the gravitational constant, which is measured by conducting experiments and scientists provided the measurement to be 6.693 * 10-11 cubic meters per kilogram second squared Newton proposed this formula after studying the measurements given by astronomers. Kepler studied the movement of Mars and calculated the movements of heavenly bodies in a celestial clockwork motion orbiting around an elliptical path from where he derived the three laws of planetary motion, which allowed the astronomers to study the position of planets.
Newton conducted series of experiments and concluded that the Moon was directly under the effect of the gravitational force of Earth, and it was falling towards the earth, but the reason it did not crash down was due to following of a curved trajectory while moving forward at the same time attracted by the gravitational force. The law of Newton states the strength of gravitational force acting between two objects, in this case the moon and the earth works in the same way a light starts to get dimmer as it goes away from the field of vision gradually, which in mathematics is termed as the inverse square law.
The numerical value of acceleration of an object during free-fall has an important value. This is known as the acceleration of gravity, which means acceleration of objects only due to the influence of gravity. This acceleration is denoted by the symbol “g” that has a numerical value of 9.8 m /s, with slight variations in numerical value and is often approximated as 10 m /s. The falling of an object towards the surface of the earth occurs with no change in direction of motion occurring due to the earth’s attractive forces changing the magnitude of velocity. The change in velocity is due to acceleration, here the falling of an object towards the earth’s surface involves gravitational force also termed as the acceleration due to the influence of gravity, the unit measurement of which is given by m/s2 . The acceleration of a free falling object is directly due to the influence of gravitational force that is same for bodies having different mass.
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