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What Are Flora And Fauna? Difference Between Flora And Fauna

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Flora and fauna:

Flora and fauna signify the plants and animals of an environment.  In order to remember them, fauna sounds identical to fawn denoting that it signifies animals, while flora sounds like flowers indicating that it denotes plants. Thus, flora and fauna denote plants and animals in the widest sense of the words that encompass all earth life pretty much, These are extremely wide categories and generally, scientists segregate the various types of fauna and flora into various categories that vary from a particular kind of life down to individual species. Before analysing the ways through which flora and fauna are segregated into various groups, it is necessary to review the terms themselves.

Flora denotes the plant life, which exists in a specific place at a specific point of time. This mainly constitutes of all indigenous plant life and the use of flora in this regard was introduced by the French-Swiss botanist along with the geologist, Jules Thurmann. In a similar manner, fauna denotes the animal life, which exists in a specific place at a specific point of time and the Swedish zoologist, Carl Linnaeus codified the use of fauna in this fashion.

There are sub-divisions in both flora and fauna. The distinction of fauna is made in a number of ways. However, they are immensely complex compared to the floral divisions owing to the evolution of animal life into various different forms. To start with, the animal kingdom itself is identified in the form of fauna. However, within the same, Avifauna denotes the birds and Piscifauna signifies the fishes. These are easier classifications, as they fail to cover small single-celled organisms like viruses and bacteria. In addition, they do not account for the microscopic organisms, which abound in nature; however, it is not possible to view them from the human eyes. The animal life is termed as Microfauna. Majority of the fauna and flora of the world could be observed; however, there is a significant percentage that is yet to be named and discovered as well.

This is the reason behind the occurrence of the classifications like Crytofauna denoting the extremely rare animals and they could even be mythological. There are Microfauna as well denoted the extremely small animals along with Megafuana talking about the big animals usually seen.

Differences between flora and fauna:

Flora and fauna have certain aspects, which are not similar to each other and they are differentiated briefly as follows:

Basis for Comparison




Flora denotes the natural vegetation that comprise of fungi, plants, algae and others in a specific geographical region.

Fauna denotes the animal life residing in a specific geographical region or area.


Flora is studied under botany and the individual studying the same is termed as the botanist.

Fauna is studied under the zoology field and the individual studying on such matters is termed as the zoologist.

Heterotrophs/ Autotrophs

Flora could be categorised under autotrophs, since it could prepare its own food by using sunlight.

The living beings falling under fauna are identified as heterotrophs owing to their inability in preparing their own food and they depend on flora for food either directly or indirectly.


Flora is deemed to be the initial form of life that appeared on earth at the first stage, in accordance with the chronological history of the universe.

Fauna is believed to be developed after flora, since the former relies on the latter for food.


Flora could not move from one place to another.

Fauna could travel from one area to another.

Cell wall

Cell wall is observed to be inherent on flora.

There is no cell wall present in fauna.


Flora contains chloroplast, which is utilised for the preservation of energy.

There is no presence of chloroplast in fauna; however, it has mitochondria in order to preserve energy.


Forests, grasslands, flowering and non-flowering plants and trees could be categorised under flora.

Animals, birds, insects, fishes and others could be classified under fauna.

Importance of flora and fauna:

The Planet Earth has been blessed in a variety of ways. The ecological systems are complicated. This is because along with providing resources, the ecological systems make the universe make a more beautiful area for life. There could be possibility of little of the world in the absence of the varying nature of fauna and flora of the earth. Flora and fauna are deemed to be significant for the following set of reasons:

Maintaining ecological balance:

It is not possible for the human beings to survive in the absence of flora and fauna. Flora generates and releases oxygen, which fauna needs for respiratory purposes. Fauna, in return, develops and releases carbon dioxide, which flora needs for photosynthesis. This is a symbiotic type of relationship. In a similar manner, it is not possible for the human beings to survive by without fauna and flora. The oxygen breathed by human beings comes from flora and the carbon dioxide exhaled is crucial for the flora.

In addition, the human beings obtain diverse advantages from fauna and flora in relation to sources of medicine, food and water. The primary source of food originates from animal and plant species. Above 90% of the medicines used for curing diseases are generated from flora. In the absence of flora, there would not be any water, which implies that the human beings could not exist in the current era.

The animals are involved in maintaining the equilibrium across the board as well through predation on plants as well as other animals, which could have exploded otherwise in relation to population. They allow other rate species of plants to the mushroom through pollination of other plants. The droppings of animals act as a source of fertiliser for plants. At the time the animals die, they act in the supplemental mineral for plants. In addition, the micro-organisms on the surface of the earth benefit from food abundance owing to the droppings of the animals.

Aesthetic value:

It is a common fact that the human beings appreciate and live nature. In fact, many individuals like devoting time in outdoor settings like natural areas, forests, parks and other green spaces owing to their aesthetic value. Such aesthetic value is contributed primarily by the spread of fauna and flora. According to the recent reports, nearly half a billion people every year visit the beautiful protected sceneries such as recreational areas, national parks, historical sites, indigenous forests, wildlife refuges along with scenic and wild rivers for experiencing the scenic beauty of the landmarks. This has underlined further the importance of fauna and flora to the day-to-day lives of the human beings.

Expansion of local economies:

There is immense contribution of flora and fauna to majority of the global economies bout tourism. For instance, fauna and flora of Amazon draw various explorers and scientists. It is anticipated that the rainforest of Amazon contributes nearly $50 million to the economy of Brazil. The exotic vacation locations such as Bahamas, the Carribean, Indonesia, Panama and others draw additional tourists than any nation owing to the widespread fauna and flora.

Examples of fauna:


Besides the typical furry animals like wolves and bears, the aquatic animals such as corals, jellyfish and others constitute of the fauna. Coral reefs are deemed to be the eye-catching coloured landscapes below the surface of the ocean. Corals might be confused as plants in the first instance; however, they are animal species comprising of the fauna of the ocean. They are immobile animals and as a result, they feed by finding out prey which swims by like the zooplankton. An instance of a coral is the Great Barrier Reef in Australia which is the biggest natural coral in the world. Corals harbour varieties of fauna and flora in  the warm shallow water, which are close to the equator.

Eltham copper butterfly:

This is deemed to be endangered species of butterfly. The area of Eltham in Victoria provides support to an increased population of this type of butterfly. This species was founded initially near Eltham in the year 1938. However, it was later thought to be wiped out in the 1950s. This kind of butterfly is not big; however, it is a glittering species of butterfly coupled with bright colour colouring above its wings. The copper colouring of the species makes it visible clearly in the course of the summer flight season.

Southern toadlet:

This species of animals features an olive to dark brown body and they are wrapped with numerous small warts over their bodies. These have white and black marked look around their bellies. These animals thrive in damp habitats like woodlands, drainage lines, grasslands, dry forests and scrublands. Southern toadlets could be found in the South-East of South Australia, Eastern Tasmania and South Victoria.


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