Psychology is the term given to the science of mind and behaviour. The study of unconscious and conscious phenomenon as well as the thoughts and feeling is included in psychology. Psychology is considered as an academic discipline having immense scope. An understanding of the emergent property of the brain and the entire different phenomenon those are linked to the emergent properties are seeked by the psychologist. Under the domain of social science psychology is aimed to understand individuals and groups by the means of establishing general principles and by researching specific cases.
In the field of psychology, a researcher or a professional practitioner is called as a psychologist and can also be classified as behavioral, social or cognitive scientist. Social behaviour and the role of mental functions are attempted to understand by psychologists. Psychologist also explore the biological and psychological process that underlie the cognitive behaviors and functions.
Psychologists are trained to explore mental and behaviour processes, including cognition, perception, emotion, motivation, attention, intelligence, brain functioning, phenomenology and personality. This further extends to interaction among people, like interpersonal relationship, including family resilience, psychological resilience and other similar areas. Empirical methods are employed by the psychologist to infer correlational and casual relationship among psychological variables. In opposition or in addition to employ deductive and empirical methods some counseling psychologist are often seen to rely on symbolic interpretation and some other inductive techniques. Psychology is described as “hub-science” in medicine tends in order to organize psychological research via psychiatry and neurology, whereas in social science it is usually drawn from the psychological sub- disciplines directly.
Whilst the knowledge of psychology is usually brought into application of the assessment and in the treatment of problems related to mental health, it is also applied to better understand and solve problems in other sphere of the human activity. Psychology is ultimately aimed to benefit the society by many accounts. A majority of the psychologist are engaged in any type of therapeutic role, counseling, practicing in clinic or school setting. Scientific research on a broad range of topics, which are related to mental behavior and process are opted by many others. Psychologists typically teach in academic settings like hospitals, medical schools or work in university department of psychology, while some others are working in organizational and industrial areas like aging, health, human development, media and the sports.
Back until the 1870s Psychology was considered as a branch under the domain of philosophy. In Germany, it was then developed as an independent discipline of science. Psychology was evolving as a self-conscious subject of experimental studies in the early 1879. The first ever lab dedicated exclusively to research on psychological matters was founded in Leipzig Germany by Wilhelm Wundt. The first person to be referred as a psychologist was also Wundt. Some early well-known and important contributors in the field of psychology are William James. Hermann Ebbinghaus, and Ivan Pavlov.
Various types of applied psychology was witnessed soon after the development in experimental psychology. Scientific pedagogy was brought by G. Stanley Hall in the early 1880 from Germany to United States. Another example is the educational theory of John Dewey in the 1890. Article on psychology to law, industry and other fields were written by Hugo Münsterberg in the early 1890s. the first psychological clinic was established by Lightner Witmer in the 1890. The first program of mental testing was generated by adapting to anthropometric methods of Francis Galton in the year 1890 by James McKeen Cattell. Meanwhile, in Vienna, an independent approach for studying the mind was developed by Sigmund Freud. This approach was termed as psychoanalysis and later on, it was very influential widely.
The Edward Titchener’s critique on Wundt’s empiricism witnessed a reaction in the 20th century. This eventually contributed to the behaviorism formulation by John B. Watson, which was further popularized by B.F Skinner. Emphasizing on the study of the overt behaviour was proposed by Behaviorism, this was because it could be easily measured and quantified. The study of mind was considered too vague by early behaviorists for a productive scientific study. However it was studied it to be thought as a type of covert behaviour by Skinner and his colleagues.
An interdisciplinary approach for the study of human mind is termed as cognitive science. Cognitive science emerged and witnessed a rise in the late 20th century. The mind as a subject for investigation is considered by cognitive science by using the tools such as computer science, evolutionary psychology, linguistics, behaviorism, neurobiology and philosophy. A broad understanding of the human mind is proposed to be possible by adhering to this specific form of investigation. This investigation is done with the scope of applying the understanding to other domains of research like the artificial intelligence.
There are some interesting facts regarding psychology, which are very interesting to know. These facts are like the brain functions in more creative way when the body is tired. When a person is offered to write with anew pen, 97 per cent of the time the people writes their own name. A person is said to be alone deep inside if he laughs at very lame jokes too. It is a sign of nervousness to hide the thumb behind all the fingers; it also indicates that the person does not wants to get noticed. The first seven seconds of interaction is needed to make the first impression as per psychologist. People with messy handwriting are more creative than an average person 90 per cent of the times. Eating orange reduces stress, doctors recommend eating oranges before work. The way parents interact with their children is about to become the inner voice of the child. It takes seven positive comment to neutralize the effect of one negative comment. Mood is improved by writing negative thoughts and thrashing them. The conversation between the mind and the subconscious mind is termed as dreams. Whenever trees and plants are around our brain secretes certain chemicals, which boosts the thinking capacity of the brain.
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