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EHANCING RETENTION THROUGH WORKFORCE DIVERSITY PROGRAMS Political Power & Legal Protection in Workforce Employment State Excluded Admitted ...
EHANCING RETENTION THROUGH WORKFORCE DIVERSITY PROGRAMS Political Power & Legal Protection in Workforce Employment State Excluded Admitted, excluded desirable jobs Accepted Recruited Welcomed Legal Protection None None EEO laws AA laws & programs Diversification programs Klingner & Nalbandian, 1998 Purpose of Programs EEO Organizational efforts to avoid violating legal or constitutional rights AA Achieve proportional representation of selected groups Workforce Diversity Increasing Productivity and Effectiveness Program Targets Affirmative Action Protect ONLY employment rights of designated categories of persons Workforce Diversity Includes ALL employees Range of Organizational Activity Affirmative Action Recruitment Selection Promotion Workforce Diversity Recruitment Promotion & Retention Job Design Pay & Benefits Education & Training Performance Mgt. Locus of Control Affirmative Action External Managerial responses to outside compliance agencies requirements Workforce Diversity Internal Managerial demands for enhanced productivity & effectiveness Impact Of Program Affirmative Action Often negative Changes required for “good faith effort” to avoid sanctions from compliance agencies or courts Workforce Diversity More positive Changes pursued in order to become more effective & competitive WORKFORCE DIVERSITY makes a conscious effort to recognize and value the KSA’s members of diverse cultures bring to the workplace AND to consciously utilize these KSA’s to make organizations successful & productive. A Long - Term Strategy To manage the differences and similarities of employees in order to promote productivity, quality, and fairness in the workplace. Benefits of the Diversity Initiative Boost employee morale Increase employee productivity by utilizing talents Create a work environment that allows everyone to reach their full potential Provide multiple options for dealing with workplace diversity Reduce complaints and grievances Acquire multiple perspectives on problem solving Recruitment & Retention Increase diversity of applicant pool Increase selection rate by avoiding disparate impact testing or processes Evaluate performance evaluation Develop mentoring systems Job Design Changes in where and how employees work Reasonable accommodations to make workplace physically accessible Education & Training Focus on future workforce involvement with public schools Inclusion of basic skills unrelated to specific job tasks Strengthen state - federal job training Joint business - govt policy initiatives Multicultural awareness training Pay and Benefits Policies Flexibility Benefits for part - time employees Child or elder care Parental leave Phased retirement policies Performance Measurement & Productivity Improvement Programs Clearly defined performance measures Evaluation based on work teams – Valuing contribution of individual within team Incentives for productivity improvement Effective Programs Include 1. Broad definition of diversity 2. Systematic assessment of existing organizational culture 3. Top - level initiation and commitment 4. Establishment of specific objectives Effective Programs Include 5. Integration into managerial performance evaluation & reward structure 6. Coordination with employee development, job design and TQM 7. Continual evaluation and improvement Hoyman’s 4 Types of Worker Friendly Policies 1. Family – Personal 2. Removing Impediments to Work 3. Training and Education \ 4. Non - Traditional Incentives FAMILY – PERSONAL POLICIES Leave – personal, pregnancy, maternity, paternity, bereavement, family medical Childcare – on - site, vouchers Flexible use of sick days Vacation Health benefits REMOVING IMPEDIMENTS TO WORK Employee assistance programs Work at home Telecommuting Flex - time TRAINING & EDUCATION OJT skill training Skill acquisition through workshops, conferences Personal development classes Work release to attend classes Tuition reimbursement Adult basic education Bonuses for degree completion NON - TRADITIONAL INCENTIVES Company car Parking prizes Presenteeism Recognition and productivity incentives Health & fitness facilities Stress management assistance On - site oil & lube Managing Diversity: What type? Employees perceive lower organizational effectiveness where racial diversity is high UNLESS Diversity well managed, perceived organizational effectiveness is HIGHER when racial diversity is greater Higher levels of gender diversity increased organizational performance Other findings (Choi & Rainey 2010) Racial diversity significantly improved performance in agencies that encouraged teamwork and cooperation among employees Only age diversity had a positive association with performance in agencies that emphasized the performance and productivity of employees. Integration and Learning Perspective of Diversity Organizations properly manage employees’ varied perspectives, diversity can be a source of Growth Learning Intuition Leading to enhanced organizational performance
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