Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation. That is, A produces more of B which in turn produces more of A.
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Studying political science empowers the students with a deep understanding about the dissemination of political powers. Political science also teaches an individual the ways in which different types of government respective to a country, functions and interact with the government systems of other countries. This field of study teaches the students the process of making rules and reinforcing them. There is a lot of scope for students if they choose Political Science as their field of study as they have a myriad of career options to choose from if they are well versed in the subject of Political Science. Availing political science assignment Help from MyAssignmenthelp.com is the best way they can score excellent marks in their tests and climb up the ladder of success in the field of Political Science.
The students can either go into law or become a legal assistant or they can take up government jobs which can range from legislature to city planning if they score well in their Political Science assignments and are awarded with a degree. A student is also free to explore possibilities in the business fields by trying out career options in advertising, public relations and banking. Studying political science also qualifies the student to take up careers in journalism as they can report on international as well as domestic policies as a political correspondent.
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Going by the definition, Political science focuses on studying the governments, the formulation of public policies, description of political systems and processes, and political behavior (Sabatier and Weible 2014). Aristotle regarded political science as the master of all the sciences. This is because political science influences every facet of the social endeavor of humans. The basic function of studying political science is that it helps us in understanding politics. If a person has a decent understanding in a particular field, he will most likely to make use of it with a view of making them work in the manner that he wants.
Political science measures the success and failures of a government including their policies by evaluating the related factors like justice, peace, public health, material wealth and stability (Heywood 2012). Politicians, journalists, and special interest groups are able to analyze political issues with the help of a basic framework provided by political science.
When a person in power, abandons his position from his or her throne or government so that the position is vacant entirely, or is succeeded by a person elected before is known as Abdication. It means that the person in power has to do nothing with the previous position. Abdication is a permanent and voluntary withdrawal from the position of a monarch or a public official (Clarke and Primo 2012).
The term absolute monarchy indicates that the ultimate right to govern a state was in the hands of the monarch or king who ruled the country by divine right. Divine right suggests that the monarch is given his position by a higher authority Anderson 2012). The monarch is entitled to look after the following areas: taxes, administration, foreign policy and justice.
Bossuet believed that God gave responsibility to the governments to aid the humanity by organizing the way they live. The power of the kings and the queens was unconditional, since God gave them the authority. Absolute monarchy is different from limited monarchy where he does not share his power with anybody, unlike in the case of limited monarchy where the government has to share the authority with other governing bodies.
Bureaucracy is a form of government in which the officials of the state take the most important decisions rather than the representatives elected by the people. The most important feature of bureaucracy is clear hierarchy (Jackson and Sorensen 2015). This means that every individual is assigned with a fixed task or responsibility in the chain, and is looked after by a higher authority on the next level.
The top management is the highest authority to which the lower subordinates are accountable. A well-defined set of formal rules are also a feature of bureaucracy, where clear instructions are given to the workers in each of the levels of hierarchy.
According to Aristotle, a person who actively participates in the administrative affairs of the state is a citizen. However, there is a huge difference between the ancient and the contemporary definitions of citizenship. The whole population of a state cannot take part in the activities of governance of the state (Love and Mattern 2012).Therefore, as Professor Laski suggests, a citizen is a person who is dutiful towards the stare and in return, enjoys all its benefits.
To sum up, a citizen is an individual, who resides in the state permanently, is responsible towards the state, wishes for the welfare of the state and enjoys all the social and political rights gifted by the state.
A constitution is a structural framework within which a set of exclusive fundamental principles related to the governance of a state is defined.
The constitution of United Kingdom defines the relationship between the state and the individual, the judiciary and the executive. The United Kingdom has an unwritten or an uncodified constitution, meaning there is no single document of the constitution. It is embodied in different documents within the works of authority, statutes, treaties and court judgments.
The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia operates under the Constitution of Australia. This constitution consists of several documents. The Australian colonies during the years 1898-1900 approved the constitution in a series of referendums, and eventually the final draft was enacted as Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900.
The supreme law of the Constitution of the United States of America is its constitution. It initially comprised of seven articles, which defined the national framework of the government (Heywood 2012). The Constitution of the USA has been amended twenty-seven times since it came into force in the year 1789.
Imperialism, in simple terms means to govern over a huge territory. It is a policy which is concerned with exercising a country’s influence and power with military force, colonization and other political means (Fredrickson et al. 2015). Many Scholars opine that imperialism has played a major role in shaping the contemporary world, allowing the rapid spread of ideas and technologies among the countries of the world.
Developed in Greece, the model of separation of powers embodies the division of the government of the state into three branches, each with a distinctive responsibilities and independent powers so that the authority is not concentrated within a small group of people (Shafritz et al. 2015). The branches are namely executive, legislature and judiciary. This also provides a system of checks and balances within the state.
A legislature is an assembly vested with the authority of making laws for a city or a country. They are a significant component of the Government. A legislature is often put in contrast to the executive and judicial branches of the government in the system of separation of powers.
The executive branch of the government is given the responsibility of executing the laws made by the legislature. The system of separation of powers has come into existence to prevent the concentration of power within a small group of people. It is important to note that the executive does not interpret the laws neither it passes them. They make sure that the laws are enforced in accordance with the legislature and are interpreted as advised by the judiciary (Wald and Calhoun 2014).
The judiciary is the third branch of the government, which interprets the law and applies it, all in the name of the state. The judiciary also extends solution to the disputes within the state (Porter 2014). The judiciary also has the power to modify or change the laws through a process known as judicial review.
Republic is a form of government where the citizens are concerned with activities that would result in their own benefit rather than the benefit of the government or the monarch (Melluish 2015). The faith in republicanism has majorly shaped the Constitution of the United States of America.
Often in a pure democracy, there are no instruments to check the interests of the weaker section of the people, which has resulted in turbulence and jeopardy. The concept of republicanism rests on the base of a balanced constitution, in which the government derives its power from the majority of the people and the administrators hold their offices during their “good” behaviour.
This discipline of political science can be classified as a scientific approach based on the method of comparison. To say it differently, comparative politics is the study of political institutions, domestic politics, and the disputes of other countries. It usually involves comparing political scenarios among the different countries and eventually outlining patterns of difference and similarities (Shafritz et al. 2015). To make it simple, we can say that comparative politics does not focus on the object of study, but the methods that are applied to evaluate the political phenomenon.
This discipline of political science evaluates international relations and economics. It can be considered as an interdisciplinary field, which is influenced, by a number of different academic branches such as history, sociology, cultural studies and economics. There are four distinct views pertaining to the international political economy (Porter 2014).
The Liberal theorists believe that the private powers should enjoy absolute freedom even if it hinders the freedom of the government or the public power.
The realist view appreciates and accepts the power of the private markets but they also believe in the regulatory control of the government.
The Marxist view on the other hand, is of the opinion that the government should exercise strong public powers on the private markets to benefit the population at large.
The constructivist view believes that the economic interaction between the countries is not free of value and the economic and political entities greatly influence economic actions.
This field of political science can either be deemed as a branch of the International political economy as mentioned above or can be treated as a separate discipline altogether. This is a very popular field of political science among the students. They opt for wide-ranged courses in humanities and social science disciplines (Melluish 2015). The international relations take inspirations from a plethora of fields like economics, technology, engineering, demography, international law, psychology, sociology as well as comparative religion.
Political philosophy is the study of politics and related subjects like property, rights, justice, law and liberty. It indicates a specific ethic or a general view about political attitudes and beliefs, which is synonymous to the concept of political ideology. Many scholars consider political philosophy as a sub-branch of political science.
This branch of political science is concerned with the formulation of government policies and other academic disciplines, which are focused on the implementation of these policies. This branch of political science is also concerned with the preparation of individuals as civil servants who will be working as public service employees (Wald and Calhoun 2014). Public administration revolves around the implementation of public policies and as well as the conduct of the officials who are responsible for their behaviour.
Public Law is that component of law, which focuses on the relationship between government and the individuals, and those relationships, which can directly influence the members of the society (Fredrickson et al. 2015). This branch of political science includes administrative law, constitutional law, procedural law, criminal law as well as the tax laws.
According to the public laws, the government is bound to obey the law. For instance, if a person is unhappy with the decision of a political authority, he or she requests a court for a judicial review. Rights also have two sub-divisions, Public and Private Rights.
This branch of political science deal with the quantitative instruments used to study politics. It is a combination of mathematics, statistics and formal theory. In contrast to the normative forms of research, political methodology is used for positive research. The concept of this sub division of political science is identical to econometrics.
A state is a single unit, which can be the sovereign of an area or a territory and all the citizens who belong to that territory. Sovereignty is the ultimate authority over a political unit. For instance, we can say that the United States is sovereign over fifty states and the other territories like Guam and Puerto Rico.
A country can be termed as another word for a state. The US can either be called a state or a country. It depends on the people who use these two terms interchangeably. In political science, however, and specifically in international relations, the word ’state’ is used in a less ambiguous manner as the term country can indicate various other things like rural environment.
Nation is another important term, which political science students must understand. A nation comprises of a separate population of people interconnected to each other by a common history, culture, or tradition, who live within a particular geographic region. It is observed that the contemporary states try to incorporate values of the nation within the boundaries of the national territory. It is also important to note that not all the nations comprises of states (Laski 2014).
A governmentis a structure or a system through which a community or a state is controlled. The word Government can also be explained as group of individuals who impose and executive authority over a community or a state. In American English, government is also referred to as administration. Structurally, a government comprises of administrators, legislators and arbitrators. The government enforces the policies of the state (Wezel 2014). It is also responsible for the implementation of these policies. The government has the potential to influence human activities in different significant ways.
As the governments of the nation have different official forms, it is easy to identify the form of government operating in a country. For example, in the United States of America, a constitutional republic form of government operates, while on the other hand, socialist republic form of government was dominant in the soviet unions (Ratnapala et al. 2014).
However, the identification can also become difficult because a huge number of political structure or systems emerge because of socio-economic movements and then divert themselves naming their parties after the respective movements. Pertaining to the strong ties that they have with these movements, they can be deemed as a type of government in themselves.
The United States of America consists of fifty states and is a federal republic. The constitution was drafted in the years 1787, and the framers did not want any individual or group to gain too much control over the state, so they established a governmental system, made up of separate institutions, which share different powers amongst each other.
There are three tiers of the government namely national, state and the local, with the American citizens electing individual officers to serve their responsibility in each tier. The government is divided into three independent branches- executive, legislative and the judiciary at the national level (Howarth and Torfing 2016). Each branch has its own distinctive responsibility operated through a system of checks and balances.
Article I of the US constitution establishes the legislative branch of the government, which is vested with the responsibility of formulating national laws and modifying the previous ones. This responsibility is carried out by the congress, a body having dual chambers or houses known as the Senate and the House of Representatives.
The congress is empowered with the control over the federal taxation system, the right to mint money, and the power to declare war on the other countries. The most significant job of the congress is to write, discuss and pass bills before they are forwarded to the President.
As the work of the Congress has grown extensive and complex over the years, it has come to rely upon the assistance and advice of a number of agencies and a huge congregational staff (Axelroad 2015). The Budget office at the congress is a team of experts in economics and statistics, who help the legislature by providing sound and impartial advice on various issues related to the state laws and proposals.
This branch of the government Is responsible for enforcing the laws and regulations made by the executive branch of the US government. The executive comprises of the president, the vice-president of the country, the cabinet and number of independent agencies. The US president heads the executive branch, who looks after the faithful execution of the laws. He is also responsible for protecting, preserving and defending the constitution.
The President apart from leading the executive branch of the US government, is also the commander in chief of the US military force. He is responsible or the negotiation of international treaties, signing of important bills related to the laws of the state, and appointing people to the positions in the cabinet, ambassadors of the state and the members of the jury. Although the president has significant authority over the state, his powers are limited through the system of checks and balances.
The cabinet is essentially made up of the president and the leaders of the fifteen executive departments - commerce, defense, agriculture, energy, education, human and health services, urban and housing development, homeland security etc. They must work closely with the committees of the congress who are responsible for controlling their budgets and the formulation of laws which the cabinet implements.
The judicial branch of the Government of USA is given the responsibility of interpreting the laws formulated and passed by the congress. It comprises of the Supreme Court at the top with other local federal courts. The judiciary has the power to declare a law unconstitutional in case if they find that these laws are violating the constitution. This is a significant role of the judiciary in the US constitution.
The Supreme Court is the court of highest authority in the US. Its decision cannot be altered and can be only changed by another decision of the court, or by the process of a constitutional amendment. The judges are appointed by the President and continue to be in their offices for life, until they decide to resign. The first and foremost responsibility of the Supreme Court is to prevent the violation of constitutional principles.
Article III of the US constitution, embodies the creation of federal courts, which are necessary for the interpretation, and application of the federal laws of the state. Hence, apart from the Supreme Court, there are a number of district, appeal and specialized courts.
The political system of the United Kingdom is essentially governed by the monarchy but the powers of the monarch, in this case, the Queen, is ceremonial. The royal family certainly has some authority and influence over the processes of the legislation. because of the notion that the royalties must be consulted about the decisions regarding the legislations that might affect the interests of the government (Porter 2014).
The government of the United Kingdom is almost synonymous with the Parliament. All the authority comes from the parliament or Westminster. The Parliament has the right to make or dismiss any law and there is no individual in the United Kingdom who has the authority to override the decisions of the Parliament.
The Prime Minister is the head of the government of the United Kingdom. He is vested with the responsibility of taking all the important decisions regarding:
The house of the commons is the lower chamber of the parliament and is constituted by the members of the parliament, whom are elected by the respective constituencies. This is identical to the United States ‘Congressional district in which a large city has many constituencies. A single MP represents each constituency, and each constituency has a different name.
The people from the House of the Commons are chosen for a period of five years, but they can be made to resign from the office, if they lose their vote of confidence. Each member in the House of Commons represents a specific geographic constituency. The Isle of Wight is the largest constituency in the country with one lack twelve thousand electors. Every citizen of the country, who has crossed the age of eighteen, is entitled to vote. The method of election is the Proportional representation, which means that there is direct relationship between the number of seats won by the particular political party and the number of votes casted for it.
This is the upper chamber of the UK parliament but has less authority compared to the lower chamber or the House of Commons. Its major responsibility is to interpret the legislative laws and keep a track on the activities of the Government. It can block money bills but that too is put to the approval of the House of Commons. There are 825 members in the House of Lords, which makes it the second largest legislative body in the world. The Queen, as advised by the members of the Government appoints the members of this division of the parliament. They can stay in their office for as long as they want, but no member of their family is allowed to sit in the parliament after they die.
The constitution of Australia embodies the establishment of a federal government with the parliament, the judicature and the executive government. These three branches are also often known as the three arms of the Australian Government. However, the constitution does not mention some central feature of the governmental system of Australia, which is based on convention and customs (Rotheinstien 2012).
The powers of the Australian Government are divided into three branches of the government like that of the US political system. The legislature is entitled to make the laws; the executive is vested with the responsibility of enforcing those laws in the country and the judiciary is to interpret those laws and apply them in cases accordingly.
The legislative and the executive functions often overlap in a parliamentary system of government as the ministers of the executive government are sourced from the parliament. However, in the Australian Government there are instruments of checks and balances to prevent the friction between the executive and the legislature.
The constitution of Australia has given the power to the parliament to make laws. The Parliament comprises of the Queen, the Governor-General, and the two sub divisions- the Senate and the House of the Representatives. The parliament passes the legislative laws. Both the houses of the parliament must agree to the proposed laws, for them to become a law. Both these houses enjoy equal powers, except that the Senate has restrictions to introduce or amend laws related to finance.
He heads the Australian Government. The Prime Minister achieves his position after getting elected as the leader of the Australian government.
He is the ceremonial head of the state and performs functions on behalf of the Queen. The Governor-General performs activities in the name of the Queen, on the advice of the Prime Minister. He has the power to appoint and dismiss the executive councilors, decides the meeting as well as the dissolving of the parliament.
The role of the Queen in Australia is quite different from the role of the Queen in the United Kingdom. It is significant to note that the Governor General performs the functions of the Queen even when she is the head of the state.
The Australian constitution gives the judicial power to interpret laws and gauge their application in individual cases to the High Court and other federal courts. The constitution establishes the high court. The legislations in the parliament create the other courts. The Governor General appoints the judges on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Cabinet.
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