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Discuss about the Review of Intervention and Prevention Programs.

Globalization and Emergence of the Challenge

Human trafficking is trading in humans for purposes of commercial sexual exploitation, sexual slavery, or forced labor for the trafficker or others (Tsutsumi et al. 2008 p.1841). The aspect may encompass the extraction of tissues or organs which includes surrogacy or removal of ova and forced marriages in order to provide a spouse. According to Crawford and Kaufman (2008 p.905) the trafficking of girls is defined as the illegal buying and selling of girls and is widely spread in remote areas of Nepal where people are poor, ignorant, or uneducated. The traffickers of girls commit a major social crime and are believed to be selling their victims in India and other parts of the world. The trafficking of girls in Nepal is a challenging problem, with the traffickers making a complex network for supplying the girls, and travel to remote areas and pretend to be officials, teachers, social workers and other titles which cannot raise suspicion.

Globalization refers to the process through which organizations or businesses venture into international markets and begin its operations on an international scale. According to Kaufman and Crawford (2011 p.660) today, capitalist globalization involves an unprecedented assumption of human beings as commodities, which has massively industrialized the trading in sex in the last thirty years leading to a rise in the trafficking of girls. Research by the International Labour Organization (ILO) found out that forced labor alone, which is a component for the trafficking of girls, generates profits of approximately $150 billion yearly as of 2014. The ILO in 2012 estimated the trapping into the modern-day slavery of approximately 21 million victims (Hamal 2014 p.167).

In Nepal, the trafficking of girls is a serious and challenging problem not only in the country but in the rest of the world. Many girls in Nepal face the risk of being trafficked, with the vice increasing each day. Male and females have been discriminated hence weakening the potential of girls who end up being trafficked and abandoned at various brothels where they become prostitutes by being forced to take clients. Sadly, some of the traffickers collude with the relatives so as to succeed in their operations hence reflecting how aggression has crossed boundaries. Additionally, most trafficked girls are infected by venereal diseases and AIDS by their clients. After being brought back into Nepal, the girls face the problem of sufficient medical care, unemployment, and rejection by the society and their families. They lack affection from their dear ones who drive them away after discarding them.

The Adaptive challenge of Girl trafficking

According to Thygeson, Morrissey, and Ulstad (2010 p.1009) adaptive challenges are situations where too many solutions exist for a challenge but there are no clear choices or there are no known solutions to the problems. Furthermore, adaptive challenges are unpredictable, volatile and ambitious in nature, therefore, they require people to learn new things of which requires innovation, adopt an experimental mindset and change their norms, attitudes, and values.

Currently, Girl trafficking has become prevalent with over 700,000 girl slaves globally exist and the majority of the population are unaware (Shelley 2013 p.128). In Nepal, the current strategies that are used include deep campaigns of discouraging girl trafficking from active communities, rehabilitation that is done by non-governmental organization like Maiti Nepal, provision of medical care and brainstorming of girls and provision of vocational training to the girls for development of different skills so they can be independent and earn for themselves. Other strategies include raising of awareness of girls trafficking among civil society, law enforcement bodies and policymakers. Furthermore, implementation of Nepal law strategy has reduced the figure significantly with penalties ranging from 10 to 20 years’ imprisonment discouraging dealers of girls trafficking (Simkhada 2008 p.235). However, the current strategies used in addressing girl trafficking challenges are not working fast enough to bring a solution to the girl trafficking challenge.

The solution or prevention of girls trafficking in Nepal requires to increase public awareness and collaboration with conscious citizens. Marches, slogans and meetings can raise public awareness. Furthermore, articles need to be published in newspapers frequently to aware people. The information should further reach to teachers in the villages as they can influence and make the community aware of the crime. Additionally, when the community is aware, many victims are likely to protect themselves if they know how traffickers tempt them and what happens in case of trafficking attempt them.  Providing employment to citizens without gender biases, massive campaigns to end gender discrimination and strict laws are the solution to the girls trafficking challenges. Other actions include Implementations of more laws regarding girls trafficking, strict checking in Nepal borders and India and educating girls in rural areas.

The boundaries between states, markets, and civil spheres need to be crossed in order to pave an effective way of ending girl trafficking challenge. In order to cross these boundaries, Nepal government must be on the frontline to identify local potential markets and collaboratively working with common citizens to determine the root cause and dealers of the girls trafficking. The collaboration with neighboring countries to fight against girls trafficking also assist in identification of dealers and Girls trafficking market abroad. Furthermore, the Joining of different society together and deriving informers among them raise one voice of curbing the girl trafficking challenges (Sanghera 2017 p.37). Furthermore, the informers need to identify the specific areas where the girls trafficking activities are taking place and the key people involved in this social evil business.

Boundaries Needed To Be Crossed

The traditional cultural values, age-old patriarchal value system, and social values need to be shifted to modern values to effectively implement the change and deliver strategies that will bring a solution to challenges of girl trafficking (Deane 2010 p.493). Although the constitution of Nepal has guaranteed equality and empowerment to women, the culture of discrimination against women in the country is manifested in many ways. Women are still regarded as second-class citizens and commodities as they are suffering from political, cultural, social and economic fronts. Furthermore, girls trafficking is rooted deeply in the oppressive cultures systems creating forced-sex slavery environment. For example, the Badi community has made subservience as a normal life for decades with girls from this group serving other groups and the tradition had become a means of livelihood (Gurung 2014 p.163).

Technology has played a key role in addressing the girl trafficking challenge in Nepal. Current advancement in technology such as social media networks, internet, GPS and mobile phones have contributed to effective communication between different stakeholders. Furthermore, the technologies have enabled faster law enforcement communication and identification of traffickers and the tracing of their activities as their mobile phones, social media profiles, online correspondence, and transactions can be traced. Additionally, technology is extensively used by agencies, individuals, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and groups for raising global awareness of the girl trafficking and preventing other criminal activities (Kunze 2009 p.241).

Conclusion

The problem of trafficking of girls for financial and sexual exploitation can be solved through the elimination of poverty by the provision of job opportunities, provision of education for all, and raising awareness for all. Various social organizations are working towards the elimination of the problem of trafficking of girls, with their program enhancing the effectiveness of efforts to wipe out the problem. The trafficking of girls has proven to be a stigma in Nepal and other countries and can be mitigated through making people aware of the dangers associated with the trade in order to ensure that everyone assumes responsibility in solving the problem. Governments should intervene to curb the vice by ensuring that perpetrators of the crime are punished heavily by the law.

References

Crawford, M. and Kaufman, M.R., 2008. Sex trafficking in Nepal: Survivor characteristics and long-term outcomes. Violence against women. 8th ed. USA: SAGE Publications. Pp.905-916.

Deane, T., 2010. Cross-border trafficking in Nepal and India—violating women’s rights. Human rights review. 4th ed. Germany: Springer. pp.491-513.

Hamal Gurung, S., 2014. Sex trafficking and the sex trade industry: The processes and experiences of Nepali women. Journal of Intercultural Studies. 2nd ed. U.S.A: Taylor & Francis. pp.163-181.

Kaufman, M.R. and Crawford, M., 2011. Research and activism review: Sex trafficking in Nepal: A review of intervention and prevention programs. Violence against women. 5th ed. U.S.A: SAGE Publications. pp.651-665.

Kunze, E.I., 2009. Sex trafficking via the internet: How international agreements address the problem and fail to go far enough. J. High Tech. L. 10th ed. New York: Hein Online. p.241.

Sanghera, J., 2017. Unpacking the trafficking discourse. In Trafficking and prostitution reconsidered. London: Routledge. pp. 37-58.

Shelley, L. (2013). Human trafficking as a form of transnational crime. In Human trafficking  U.S.A: Taylor & Francis. pp. 128-149.

Simkhada, P., 2008. Life histories and survival strategies amongst sexually trafficked girls in Nepal. Children & society. 3rd ed. U.S.A: Elsevier. pp.235-248.

Thygeson, M., Morrissey, L. and Ulstad, V., 2010. Adaptive leadership and the practice of medicine: a complexity?based approach to reframing the doctor–patient relationship. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 5th ed. U.S.A: Wiley Online Library. pp.1009-1015.

Tsutsumi, A., Izutsu, T., Poudyal, A.K., Kato, S. and Marui, E., 2008. Mental health of female survivors of human trafficking in Nepal. Social Science & Medicine. 8th ed. U.S.A: Elsevier. pp.1841-1847.

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