There has been a phenomenal development in the sphere of communication and media to the extent that mass communication has become a subject of specialization for the students and has gained immense popularity among the students. Opting for Mass Communication opens up numerous opportunities for the students to choose from. Many career options are also available for the students if they are well versed in the subject. They can go into hardcore journalism, take up advertising or public relations, and take up corporate jobs. The opportunities are endless. The subject of mass communication covers a wide range of sub disciplines which need to be understood if the students want to score well in their assignments. Our team of experts at MyAssignmenthelp.com provides the students with mass communication assignment help round the clock, whenever they need them, at affordable costs.
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It is important to note that the scope of mass communication is not limited to journalism only as it used to be in earlier times. It covers many facets of the human life. The students find this subject more enticing than the conventional subjects because it provides them high paying jobs and greater job satisfaction. This job satisfaction roots from the potential of creativity that this subject gifts to students. This is the reason we provide online mass communication assignment help to students.
What is Mass Communication?
There is no denying about the fact that media plays a huge role in modifying the shape of our society. It empowers people to overcome the daily challenges in communication, the barrier of language being the biggest and assist them to put an end to all the communication related issues. With the advancement in science and technology, the oral and written forms of communication started to get disseminated over a wider audience over the time (Batinic and Appel 2013). The word communication has evolved from the Latin word, “communis”, which means to share. The process of communication is social in nature.
Features of Mass Communication
For a message to be communicated, we need to have a sender, a channel, a message and a receiver. Feedback is an extension of the process of communication, which is the reaction or response of the receiver pertaining to the message (Cambell et al. 2014). Another important element to the process of communication is the disturbance or noise, which act as a barrier to the communication.
The source is the person or group of individuals who is sending the message. It is the representation of the organization or institution where the idea has been emanated originally. If the source and the sender of the messages are different, the sender either hails from a media organization or is a professional media person. Therefore, a technologist or a scientist may use the media of mass communication, for disseminating and propagating his work or ideas. They can also send their transcripts to the media organizations to do the task on their part (Grunig 2013).
The message is the information which needs to be communicated through the media. Before transmitting the message to the media, it is processed so that it can be easily decoded by the receiver. In case of television, the message can take various forms. For example, discussions, plays, documentaries, interviews etc (Hirst et al. 2014). As far as the newspapers are concerned, the messages can be processed in forms of news stories, articles and features.
In mass communication, the terms media and channels are often used interchangeably. The forms of mass media like television, radio and newspapers have the potential to spread the message with incredible speed which can reach the destinations everywhere. Mass communication has turned our world into a global village. This indicates that with the advent of mass media, our world has become a smaller place where people are coming closer to each other despite of the geographical differences (Ki et al. 2015).
The channels of mass communication fall into two broad categories:
Print: These include books, newspapers, pamphlets and magazines.
Electronic: The electronic channels include television, radio, internet and cinema.
There is also an additional category of the media channels, which comprises of the traditional forms of media like drama, folk dance, folk songs and so on.
The receivers are the mass individuals who are at the receiving end of the communication process. The receivers are often referred to as audience. They are individuals who have come together by a common link of interest (to be educated, informed or entertained). It is important to note that individuals remain anonymous to each other. The most incredible feature of mass communication is that it has an audience, which is widespread, yet demarcated from the source by a great distance. Mass communication has the potential to multiply a single message disseminate it to many people at many places. Its greatest ability is to spread the message to a wide audience who are scattered and located far from each other (De Fleur and DeFleur 2016).
This is the most important aspect of mass communication, which should not be ignored. Mass communication will never have direct feedback. When a source communicates a message regarding a social issue through the means of television, radio or newspapers, it will have to rely on indirect means of feedback like letters and phone calls from the audience, or the survey regarding the reaction of the audience. Direct feedback is available only in case of interpersonal communication or to a very limited extent in case of a group communication (Hirst et al. 2014).Mass communication, thus will always call for an indirect feedback from the audience.
This feature is also unique to mass communication. Messages are being repeatedly communicated to the audience without any filters or checks. There needs to be a certain balance, control regarding the editing and selection of messages. Both organizations and individuals indulge in gate keeping. Gate keeping means setting of standards and guidelines that limit the content development and delivery of messaged to the people.
The concept of noise in mass communication can be categorized into two types. Semantic and channel noises. Channel noise refers to the distractions that take place during the transmissions of the messages within the media. In case of print media, the noise can be scrambled words, misspellings, misprinting or omitted lines. Any mechanical errors that erupt during the communication process might lead to the message being modified from its original form when it reaches the audience (De Fleur and DeFleur 2016). Semantic noise refers to barriers like difference in the socio-economic status of people, language barriers, age, occupation, difference in education level, etc.
Figure 1: Components of Mass Communication
(Source: Ki et al. 2015).
Functions of Mass Communication
The functions of mass communication can be summarized as follows:
According to Laswell, this function of mass communication is the most important. Schramm suggested that the media takes on the role of a guard, monitoring the conduct of the people, processes and objects for the sake of social control and security. Although the literal meaning of the term surveillance is “watching over”, it is not just limited to visual observation but is used for all forms of monitoring and observation. Mass communication is watchful of the socio-economic events in the close and faraway proximities and delivers the reports to the audience through creative reporting.
Our life would have been a crippled one if there were no media to disseminate information to us. Information is regarded as power in the western countries. The more informed a person is the more powerful he becomes. An individual can reap many advantages to his or her interest if he has an access to information. Mass communication enhances our knowledge about the environment in which we reside. Information such as news of danger, crisis, war, earthquake, flood, famine etc is brought to us by the mediums of mass communication. This information helps us to safeguard ourselves from danger and take appropriate steps to acquire things of our interest (Bioca 2013).
If there were no entertainment in our life, it would become monotonous and mundane with only stress and tensions of various kinds. To get a break from the monotony, we need entertainment occasionally to calm and soothe our senses. Mass communication through the medium of mass media provides a myriad of entertainment to the individuals or audience through drama, television shows, art, music, games, films, animation etc. Mass media helps people to escape from their stressful lives. Television provides entertainment to the individuals in the form of talk shows, interviews, music videos, news etc. Radio is also a great medium of entertainment to the people as they air various kinds of talk shows, interviews, radio shows, and news for its listeners. Even the print media, with typefaces, color, and attractive features with respect of pictures and presentation style entertains its readers.
Persuasion is another term used to indicate the act of influencing other individuals. This is one of the most important functions of mass communication. One can only govern and control others through the process of persuasion. Both the developed as well as the developing countries are using this potential feature of mass communication. Persuasion is explained as the process of making an impact on the audience so that they inculcate a desirable attitude towards new ideas and become discontented with the existing traditional ones. When an advertiser is pleading the audience to buy his product, he is trying to persuade them (Bioca 2013). Similarly, when a political leader delivers his speech, he is trying to persuade the citizens to vote for him. Both the print and electronic media has incredible potential to persuade the audience.
Figure 2: Functions of Mass communication
Mediums of Mass communication
Newspapers enjoyed being the most popular medium of mass communication among a wide range of audience until the electronic media came by. Even today, the masses depend upon reading the newspapers to get them acquainted with the current news trending in the city or even worldwide. A newspaper covers a variety of topics like entertainment, current affairs, finance, politics, etc.
Advantages: Newspapers penetrate into the deepest corners of the world where the electronic media fails to reach. It provides the audience with first-hand authentic information, helping them to build an opinion, and enhancing knowledge of the reader. The readers can keep newspapers as archives for further reference (Grunig 2013).
Disadvantages: Newspapers are not of much help to the illiterate section of the society. Since, the newspapers are delivered to the readers only once in a day, they are not as fast in providing the news to its readers like the electronic or the new media.
Television is the most popular medium of mass communication. Every household has a television set nowadays. For many people, it is almost impossible to imagine their lives without a television such is the magic of this medium on the minds of people.Messages delivered through the medium of television have a major appeal to the majority of the masses. Since the medium is audio-visual; it provides greater understanding and catches more attention of the audience compared to the newspapers.
Advantages: Television is the most appealing medium of mass communication among all the other mediums. It is no problem for an illiterate person to understand the messages delivered through TV. Its audio-visual feature is its most important strength. Communication messages delivered through television can create excitement and enthusiasm among the audience.
Disadvantages: Television is an expensive media and has low retention value for the audiences.
Radio as a medium of mass communication has a significant reach. This medium is preferred especially when the message needs to be communicated to the rural population as the medium enjoys a wide reach in the rural areas. Radio was the most popular electronic medium of communication before the advent of television. However, it remains one of the most popular medium of mass communication among the people due to the interactive programs that are aired, with the listeners making a call giving them a chance to get featured on the radio.
Advantages: This medium as mentioned earlier has a mass appeal. Literacy is not a barrier and is also an inexpensive way to deliver messages to the mass. Radio enjoys immense popularity among the masses, and hence the distribution of the message among the target audience is rapid.
Disadvantages: Radio is only an audio medium. Since there is no scope for visuals, the medium may get hampered at the hands of a more enriched medium like television or the internet. This medium has also lower retention value and if the audience misses a message, it is gone forever and is irretrievable.
The internet comes under the new media, and as the name suggests, is a relatively new medium of mass communication. The invention of the internet can be regarded as a ground-breaking innovation in the field of mass media. The audience can get live updates regarding any currently trending subject on their computers, tablets, smart phones, etc.
Advantages: The most contemporary medium of mass communication has a great potential to bring the world a lot closer through the exchange of information and culture. The audience has the facility to access it at any time of the day, a privilege that is denied in the case of newspapers and radio.
Disadvantages: Gadgets like computers, Smartphone and tablets are required to access the internet, which may not be available to everyone in the masses. A certain technical knowledge is required to access the internet, so the medium is not as celebrated as the television or the radio.
Advertising as Mass Communication
Advertising is a form of non-personal communication, which is directly or indirectly aimed at the masses. It is a paid form of communication and is used to publicize and promote goods, services, products and ideas.
The primary objective of advertising is always based on communication. Advertising is a component of the marketing process. However, its aim is to communicate, by the means of reminding, informing, educating and reinforcing a message. Different advertising campaigns have different objectives. For example, reminder advertising’s goal is to generate repeat purchases of services and products, reinforcement advertising convinces the purchasers that they have made the right decision of buying the particular product, Informative advertising tries to achieve brand awareness of new products or added features in an existing service or a product.
Classification of Advertising
Advertising campaign that extends to the whole of nation or in most states and regions of the country comes under national advertising. The companies who carry out national advertisements are called national advertisers. Most of the advertisements that we see on the national television channels are national advertisements.
- Advertising through Direct Response
This is a form of direct marketing where the consumer is compelled to buy the product or service directly from the manufacturer. This form of advertising has gained immense popularity in the recent times owing to the dynamic changes in people’s lifestyles.
This kind of advertising is done to attract the retailers and wholesalers to encourage them to purchase their services and products for resale.
Role of Advertising
Advertisements are Omni-present and it persuades the audience in many ways. Advertising comprises of both communication and marketing clubbed in one. It plays a huge role in shaping the popular culture because it has the potential to touch so many lives at once. The role of advertisements is explained in two broad roles: Economic and Social.
Advertisements are economic in nature. It is carrying out an economic function for the sponsors as well as altering the economic decisions of the people who purchase the goods or services (Hirst et al. 2014). It is an integral component of a country’s economic system. Advertising has the following effects on the economy:
I: Advertising helps in distributing the costs.
Ii: Supports the media
Iii: Provides information utility
IV: Encourages economic growth
V: Positive effects on the business cycles
VI: Discourages monopoly
Vii: Enhances competition
Advertising has positive as well as negative effects on the social lives of the people. Every coin has two sides to it and advertising is no exception. There are a number of positive as well as negative effects of advertising on the society. They can be listed as follows:
- Increases standard of living:
It is a proven fact that advertising increases the standard of living of the society. Through advertising, the people are enticed to buy the better-advertised products, which increase their standard of living (Curlbeston and Chen 2013).
Advertising is known to increase awareness among the people regarding social causes. The public service advertisements educate the audience and influences them like no other medium could have ever been able to. For example, educating the audience with respect to the effects of drugs, consequences of drunk driving have been well carried-out by advertising.
Advertising is often receives a lot of opposition from the critics for propagating bad taste within the society. They are often offensive in nature, objectifying and women creating a feeling of anxiety among the audience so that they buy their products in fear of a negative consequence.
People are compelled to buy products, which they do not need, because of the influence of the advertisements. These products can also come in the category of harmful products like alcohol and cigarettes. Celebrities are often seen endorsing products, which compels the people to buy products that they do not need in the first place.
- Mass Communication and Public Relations
Public Relations is a sustained, planned and deliberate effort to maintain and establish a mutual understanding between a business organization and its publics. Public relation operates in a much wider arena than advertising. It focuses on creating a long-term mutual understanding between the organization and the people who matter to the organization (Campbell et al. 2013).
Difference between Public Relations and Publicity
There is a huge difference in the concept of public relations and publicity, which needs, which is important for the student to recognize. When an organization deliberately plans and disseminates information with an aim to manage and control it’s imagine in the eyes of people, it is public relations. It is a management function, which studies the attitude of the public, and evaluates the procedure and policies of an organization’s acceptance.
Publicity, on the other hand, comprises the non-personal forms of communication regarding a product, service or an organization that does not come directly under identified sponsorship. It is delivered to the audience in form of an editorial, a news story or an announcement about a new product or a service by its organization. Publicity is an affordable way to communicate messages to the audience, as they do not have to pay huge amounts that are required in mediums like radio and television (Hirst et al. 2013). Publicity is also considered a credible form of promotion because people are less skeptical towards information that emanates from a source that they consider as unbiased.
Advantages of Public Relations
When a business organization indulges in public relations practices, trying to maintain relations with its publics, the target audience acknowledges these efforts and hence perceives the company as a credible one.
- Easier to locate and reach the target market
Public relations make it more convenient for the companies to reach the target market to which the company hopes to offer its products and services. For example, if an accountant is looking for new clients, placing an advertisement in a home décor magazine would not be of much help (Curlbeston 2014). However, if he produces an alluring piece of article among the finance section, it might lead him to his desired destination.
Indulging in public relations practices is much cheaper than spending into advertising. Creating advertisements and placing them into the medium of television and radio can be quite expensive. However, the public relations tools are not as expensive and can lead to long-term benefits for the business organization.
This is perhaps the greatest benefit of investing in public relations practices. Public relations ensure that the organization is put under highlights so that it does not go unnoticed in the eyes of the people (Biocca 2013). It creates a favorable image of the company so that it remains in the good books of the publics.
Tools of Public Relations
Public relations entail a variety of techniques and tools to reach its target audience. These tools can be enlisted as follows:
Public Relations specialists keep finding an opportunity to engage the people in public events so that there is a chance for them to speak publicly about a development in their organization or if it is going through a crisis. This gives the organization an opportunity to reach them directly, creating an interactive session so that they are able to resolve their queries, if they have any.
Press releases are one of the oldest and most efficient tools of public relations. They provide exposure to the organization and give an opportunity to the customers to find out relevant facts about the company (Batinic and Appel 2013). A well-drafted press release will leave a decent impression of the company in the minds of its customers.
Sending newsletters directly to the target audience is another effective way of establishing and maintaining a strong bond with the customers. They are disseminated to the customers to share the general information and news that may be of their interest rather than investing huge amounts in promoting the products and services.
This is the most beneficial public relation tool when the organization wants to interact with its audience face-to-face. This is generally done by fixing a venue and a date to call the media persons and communicate to them the news of launching a new product or a service or when a huge change takes place within the organization (Batinic and Appel 2013).
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- Writing Press Releases/Newsletters: For students specializing in the public relations subsection of the mass communication course, they are expected to be great at preparing press releases and newsletters. Not everyone is a gifted writer, and in order to excel in this art, they need ample time to do so. Unfortunately, the universities rarely offer its students the gift of time. However, the students can always turn up to MyAssignmenthelp.com to avail online mass communication assignment help.
- Preparing Advertisement Campaigns: A communication student’s worth is gauged by the quality of his assignments. The students are often asked to prepare full-fledged advertising campaigns which are either fictitious or is assigned to the students in collaboration with a real life company.
Accomplishing this task requires extensive planning and creativity. Completing such an assignment within a strict deadline can be quite tedious and therefore the students are free to avail mass communication assistance from our experts.
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Batinic, B. and Appel, M., 2013. Mass communication, social influence, and consumer behavior: two field experiments. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43(7), pp.1353-1368.
Biocca, F., 2013. Television and Political Advertising: Volume I: Psychological Processes.
Campbell, R., Martin, C. and Fabos, B., 2014. Media & culture: Mass communication in a digital age. Bedford/St. Martin's.
Culbertson, H.M. and Chen, N., 2013. International public relations: A comparative analysis. Routledge.
DeFleur, M.L. and DeFleur, M.H., 2016. Mass communication theories: Explaining origins, processes, and effects.
Grunig, J.E., 2013. Excellence in public relations and communication management.
Hirst, M., Harrison, J. and Mazepa, P., 2014. Communication and new media: From broadcast to narrowcast. Oxford University Press.
Ki, E.J., Kim, J.N. and Ledingham, J.A. eds., 2015. Public relations as relationship management: A relational approach to the study and practice of public relations.
Lingwall, A. and Kuehn, S., 2013. Measuring student self-perceptions of writing skills in programs of journalism and mass communication. Journalism & Mass Communication Educator, p.1077695813506991.
Rice, R.E. and Atkin, C.K., 2012. Public communication campaigns. Sage.
Vivian, J. and Maurin, P.J., 2012. The media of mass communication. Pearson Canada.
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