Criminology assignment revolves around the concept of crime in respect of society. In a society, each and every person has certain rights to exercise and certain duties to perform. Every person is expected to respect each other's rights and follow the social norms of the society that is to live and let live. However, quite often, we find that human deviate from such ideologies and incur anti-social attitudes. Thus, these situations make the State take mandatory steps for the protection of the society from such anti-socials and punish such lawbreakers accordingly. Students can take criminology assignment help from our experts as they refer to the different definitions and outlooks given by famous philosophers on criminology. Like Salmond has pointed out the difference between the lawful and unlawful acts. According to him, any act done which is permissible by law is called a lawful act whereas any act done which is prohibited under the law of the land for the time being in force is referred to as unlawful and must be punished according to the law of that land (Markose, 2016). Through our criminology assignment help service, we will deal with the concept of crime, definition of criminology, its nature and scope, importance and the views of the different school of criminology.
Myassignmenthelp.com Assists Students in all Kinds of Law AssignmentsCriminology is a scientific approach towards the study of crimes. Different philosophers put their views in their own way making the topic too vast. To compile all their views we need to refer to criminology assignment help service. As the study of criminology is a combination of social, environmental, economical and psychological aspects, it is tough to cover and analyze all the aspects to conclude a final criminology assignment. Thus, we research all these aspects thoroughly and try to provide the students and the researchers with online criminology assignment help. In the criminology assignment help, we focus on providing a comprehensive assessment on criminology including all its aspects. We include all the definitions and the views of different philosophers of criminology for the better perceptive of the topic. Our criminology assignment writing service explores all the ends of the topic before helping the students to score good grade. The languages used are simple enough for better understanding. Thus, our criminology assignment writing service helps the students in their assignment at their hour of need.
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Understanding the Concept of Crime
Students availing criminology assignment writing service primarily need to understand the concept of crime. Our experts in the following sections will help you understand the concept of crime and its allied chapters.
The infringement of the standard and the cherished norms of the society are termed as a crime. An individual who fails to follow such norms is called anti-socials. According to Blackstone, crime is an act done or omitted which is in violation with the public law (BEIRNE, 2013). Stephen, who edited the definition of Blackstone, said that crime is a violation of a right with evil tendencies against the community at a large. Another philosopher Sutherland described the crime as a symptom of social disorganization. Halsbury explained crime an unlawful act against the public order and such unlawful act must be subjected to punishment (Mansley, 2014). Keeton defined crime as an undesirable act which could be conveniently corrected by the State by inflicting a penalty on the offender or any remedy at the discretion of the aggrieved party (Keeton, 2015). Thus, after examining the definitions, we find that crime has three fundamental characteristics -
• It is a harm caused to the society from any unlawful or anti-social acts of individual or individuals.
• The State is supposed to maintain and supervise the law and order of such state by inflicting punishment on such wrongdoer. The State must take preventive measures from the commission of crimes.
• The rules that determine the guilt of the person must be in accordance with the law of the land for the time being in force. Halsbury definition has been considered the most appropriate and precise definition of crime as it has all the elements of certainty and the elements to determine the offenders and the violation of crime.
Prominently there are three kinds of crime. Predatory crime, inchoate crime and hate crime.
• Predatory crime is conspicuous in nature in which the whole society reacts at the exploitation of the victim. Few examples of predatory crimes are dacoity, theft, extortion, kidnap and others.
• Incohate crimes are those which are committed to giving effect to some other crime such as criminal conspiracy, abetment of murder, attempt to grievous hurt and others.
• Hate crime is a different concept of crime in which the victims are not individuals but a community at a large. A peculiar characteristic of hate crime is the crime committed without any motivation. It is generally oriented by race, religion, gender and other ethics. In other words, hate crimes are committed against the vulnerable or the racial or minority religious groups of people.
Apart from these crimes, there are certain crimes in which there is no direct victim. These kinds of crimes are called victimless crimes. They do not have any direct effect on the other people even then the offenders are punished under the law for committing such acts, as those acts are considered illegal as they are contrary to the moral and economic interest of the society. In UK, drunkenness in the public place, bestiality, selling prohibited articles such as drugs are punishable by law.
With the advent of the study of criminology, efforts were made to classify crimes and criminals so that a rational standard could be reached for categorizing different punishment for the different categories of offenders or crimes.
Under English Law, crimes have been broadly classified into two categories - felonies and misdemeanours (Stephen, 2014).
• Felonies crimes are crimes of serious nature, which are punishable with imprisonment for life or with the death sentence.
• Misdemeanours crimes are less serious in nature, which is punishable by confinement in prisons for comparatively less period or with fines or both.
Later, three additional classifications were made
• A crime against property,
• A crime against a person, and
• A crime against State.
In the USA, crime has been categorized under 29 heads ranging from murder to runaway juveniles and narcotics.
Definition of Criminology
Now let us discuss the definition of criminology. The term criminology is the combination of two words. Crimen is a Latin word, and logia is a Greek word. Etymologically the term criminology means the scientific study of nature, scope, extent, causes, and control of the criminal behaviour of the individuals in a community.
According to Donald Taft, Criminology is the scientific analysis and observation of crime and criminals, and Penology is the study of punishment and the treatment of the offenders. He said the concept of penology is an early concept than criminology as earlier the State emphasized on the punishment and the treatment of the offenders rather than the scientific approach towards the causation of crime (Zainoddin, 2015).
Sutherland came up with a comprehensive definition where he defined criminology as the body of knowledge of delinquency and defined crime as a social phenomenon. He included the process of making law and breaking law within the concept of criminology. He described criminology as the body of verified principles and other knowledge related to the crime, reaction to crime and the process of law (Kautt & Pease, 2013).
As stated by Coleman and Norris, criminology is the analysis of nature, perpetrators, and causes of crimes and includes formulation and the enforcement of criminal laws and evaluation of the ways in which crimes can be controlled in the society (Coleman & Norris, 2013).
Nature and Scope of Criminology
We essentially need to focus on the nature and scope of criminology in the criminology assignment. Enrico Ferri observed that most of the developing countries actively engage in safeguarding the interest of the community from crimes and criminals by adopting an effective criminal policy (Taylor et al., 2013). The success of Social Defence theory which aims at eliminating crimes from the community depends upon the efficient administration of the criminal law in that country.
The criminologists are aiming to provide a uniform penal system for all the countries and the proper administration of prisons, reformative institutions, courts and police for the minimization of the instances of crime. For the effective control of the causation of crime, the factors that give rise to crimes or the factors that influence the minds of the offenders to commit the crime must be taken into consideration (Shute 2014).
In criminology assignment writing service, the centre of attention is the different aspects of crimes and the different measures to treat the criminals. This also includes the overall study for the reformation of the penal system ranging from the parol and probation systems to indeterminate sentence, open prisons and the other reformative institutions. If a criminal is adequately reformed and is assisted in his rehabilitation, then his chances of repeating a crime diminish and therefore he may no longer be a threat to the society. Thus, criminology aims towards the development of the society as a whole.
The modern criminologists have agreed Criminology is the scientific approach towards crime and criminals in which the effects of criminality can be effectively controlled by the proper administration of criminal justice. The criminals must be reformed and treated individually to suppress the instances of criminality.
Ceasare Lombroso pointed out that the criminals were physically inferior and different from those of the normal people. This theory threw light on the concept of modern criminology. Sutherland pointed out that a person tends to acquire criminal characteristics when exposed to or comes in association with other criminals. This theory was termed as criminal sociology (Friedrichs, 2015). Professor Jerman explained the psychology of the criminals to commit crimes. They have mental and personality conflicts out of frustrations, depressions, anxiety and other functional deviations which give rise to criminal intention among them. However, to safeguard the society from the threats of anti-social acts both the concept of criminology and penology must go hand in hand. Few criminologists believe that the causes of criminality can be cured by the society and other sociological and environmental factors.
The study of criminology is based on two cardinal principles (Rovira, 2015).
• Firstly, nullumcrimen sine lege which means no person will be charged with any criminal activities unless law expressly forbids such act and the individual had such criminal intention to perform it.
• Secondly, nullapoena sine lege states that a person can be punished under legal system only if such act is punishable under the existing penal system of the land. The concept of criminology is the combined study of legal, scientific, social, biological as well psychological factors.
The sociologists examine the factors that contribute to the delinquent tendencies in individuals. There are biological factors that contribute to the delinquent tendencies in an individual. This theory was called the will theory, which was advocated by Beccaria. He argued that certain individuals are born criminals, and they are normally the incorrigible ones and must be kept away from the society. Every individual is the master of his free will and such incorrigible individuals resorts to criminal activities out of their free will and intelligence (Taylor et al., 2013).
However, Lombroso and Tarde challenged this theory and argued that no person is a born criminal. Every individual is a biological creature who tries to survive in the community by adjusting himself to the environment. Thus, when he fails to adjust himself in the community or the circumstances makes it difficult for him to survive then he resorts to criminal activities as the ultimate option left before him and not out of his choice. He is rather forced by the circumstances to step into criminality (Thornberry, 2012).
Thus, the environment where a person resides plays an important role in the causation of crime. Prof. Sutherland commented that the industrialization has accelerated the growth of crime due to overpopulation, the disintegration of joint families, increase in women employment and advancement of technologies, which has loosened the parental control as well as emotional ties (John-Stevas, 2016). The liberal legislation for divorce has increased sexual offenses. The urge for political powers has increased political crimes extremely. Thus, the study of criminology is not confined to the behavioural activities of the criminals, but it includes the study of crimes, the causes of crimes and necessary measures to fight back and control crimes. Thus, the modern criminologists have a rather realistic and scientific approach towards crimes and criminals. They treat crimes as a social phenomenon and analyses the punishments as either treatment or preventive measures as its ultimate object.
Importance of Criminology
The recent study of criminology aims to study and analyze each case of crimes and suggests methods to instil the feelings of mutual respect, confidence, and co-operation among the criminals. The modern penological reforms and liberal legislation of punishments have afforded for the successful rehabilitation of the offenders in the society. The intense aftercare programs and the introduction of the parole and probation systems in the modern penology have brought significant success in the reformation of the offenders as law-abiding citizens. In our criminology assignment writing service, the following are the other important achievements of the modern criminology-
• The study of criminology is based on the assumption that no person is a born criminal. If an offender is given adequate chances for reformation, then he can turn into a law abiding citizen. Criminology focuses on the reformation of the criminals individually and does not apply general rules or assumption.
• The study of criminology includes the police, judges, jurors, detectives, attorneys, lawyers, psychologists, psychiatrists and sociologists for their scientific research and knowledge so that a perfect criminal justice system can be implemented.
• Criminology aims at the social solidarity. Its ultimate objective is to attain social harmony and crime-free society.
• With the development of the technologies complexity in the life of the individuals have also increased. There is an increase in crime rates such as white-collar crimes, theft, cyber crimes, smuggling, cheating and much more. Therefore, to find the solutions systematic study and approaches were needed. Criminology has succeeded to work on the strategies to meet the new challenges to protecting the society from the commissions of crimes and the development of the administration of the criminal systems according to the needs of the modern society (Bonger, 2015).
Objectives of Criminology
The central objective of the study of criminology is the systematic study of law making, law breaking and reaction to the law breaking to analyze the crime control measures. It focuses on the factors that give rise to criminal behaviour among the individuals and the measures that can be taken for the effective control of such crimes. While analyzing the concept of crime and criminals, it takes into account the various theories and findings of the jurists, psychologists, socialists, psychiatrists, economists and biologists to reach at an effective solution or administration of criminal justice to curb out criminality within the individuals (Deflem, 2015).
Thus, the criminology assignment help can be concluded by saying that the punishment must suit crime and the offender and not vice-versa. The punishment awarded must be based on the gravity of the crime. The sentencing procedure must emphasize on the humanist principle. The aim of the penal system must be to prevent the instances of crimes in the society. However, it must effectively establish the core of deterrence so that the offenders are deterred from committing crimes as well as it acts as deterrence for the other individuals to commit crimes. Nevertheless, it must be chosen carefully so that it does not undermine the true spirit of humanity as harsh and brutal punishments kill the soul of the offenders, and they might turn into atrocious and incorrigible ones. Thus, reformative steps must always be ensured for the correction, and the reformation of the offenders and adequate steps must be taken for their rehabilitation in the society as law-abiding citizens. The main purpose should be to make the offender realize the seriousness of the crime committed by him, which is not only detrimental to the society of which he is a part but also for his own future. The study of criminology aims at the systematic implementation of these ideologies to eliminate crime from the society as far as practicable by examining its various causes and possibilities and meeting them systematically.
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