Harriet Tubman was an American abolitionist, humanitarian, and an armed scout and spy for the United States Army during the American Civil War. Born into slavery, Tubman escaped and subsequently made some 13 missions to rescue approximately 70 enslaved people, including family and friends, using the network of antislavery activists and safe houses known as the Underground Railroad. During the Civil War, she served as an armed scout and spy for the Union Army. In her later years, Tubman was an activist in the movement for women's suffrage.
Tubman was born Araminta Ross in 1822 in Dorchester County, Maryland. She was one of eleven children of slaves Harriet "Rit" Green and Ben Ross. As a child, Tubman was subjected to whippings and beatings, and she suffered a severe head injury when an overseer threw a heavy weight at another enslaved person and it struck Tubman instead. This injury caused seizures, dizziness, and headaches throughout her life.
Tubman escaped from slavery in 1849, following the North Star to Philadelphia and freedom. She subsequently made some 13 missions to rescue approximately 70 enslaved people, including family and friends, using the network of antislavery activists and safe houses known as the Underground Railroad. During these missions, she guided enslaved people to freedom in the North and to Canada.
Tubman was also an armed scout and spy for the Union Army during the Civil War. She helped recruit African American soldiers for the Union Army and served as an armed scout and spy, providing valuable information to the Union Army about Confederate movements. After the war, Tubman worked as an activist for women's suffrage and other causes.
Tubman's bravery and selflessness have made her a hero and an inspiration to many. She is remembered for her courage and determination in the face of incredible adversity, and for her contributions to the abolition of slavery and the struggle for civil rights.