If you explore the online forums and research websites, you will find that many students are unaware of the quantitative research methods. Moreover, they are even oblivious of the data collection methods in quantitative research. Thus, we will analyze these aspects in detail in this blog.
What is Quantitative Research Method?
First, let us delve into what is the quantitative research method. The process of collecting and interpreting numerical data is known as quantitative research. It can be used to discern patterns and averages, make predictions, test causal linkages, and extrapolate results to larger groups.
Qualitative and quantitative data collection methods are entirely different. In the case of qualitative data, non-numerical data is collected and analyzed (e.g. text, video, or audio).
In the social and natural sciences, such as biology, chemistry, psychology, sociology, economics, and marketing, quantitative research methodologies are widely used.
What are the Quantitative Data Collection Methods?
In this section, we will take a look at the quantitative data collection research tools. Quantitative methods of research usually necessitate a high sample size. This is because the findings of your study will be representative of a broader population.
There are several methods of data collection in quantitative research, which include:
- Controlled observations
- Face-to-face interviews
- Longitudinal studies
- Telephone interviews
- Surveys: paper, kiosk, mobile, questionnaires
The quantitative data collection methods can have an impact on the responses of your participants. Participants in an experiment, for example, are unlikely to make the same decisions they would in a social setting. Participants' responses to stimuli are context-dependent, which means they may react differently to any of these quantitative research approaches.
What are the Types of Quantitative Research Methods?
Since you know how to collect quantitative data, let us now determine the types of quantitative research methods.
Descriptive data or statistics simplify quantifying a variable (or a set of variables) for a specific group.
For instance, transportation surveys may look for how many persons aged 18 to 25 utilize public transportation to commute to work. The variable, in this case, is 'public transportation,' and the target group is people aged 18 to 25.
This quantitative research technique allows you to compare two or more target groups based on one or more variables.
Comparative research might look at how people aged 18-25 and those aged 26-35 use public transportation.
Relationship data highlight trends, correlations, and relationships between two or more variables.
You could carry out market research to determine the relationship between customer gender and brand loyalty.
Hopefully, you have insight into what are quantitative methods and their types.
What Are the Methods of Data Collection in Statistics?
Now that you have an idea of what is quantitative research methodologies, we will study the methods of data collection in statistics. There are two types of collection and processing methods, and these are descriptive and inferential statistics.
Descriptive statistics will provide you with an overview of your data, as well as averages and variability measures. To visualize your data and look for trends or outliers, you can use graphs, scatter plots, and frequency tables.
You can make predictions or generalizations based on your data using inferential statistics. You can either test your hypothesis or estimate the population parameter using your sample data.
Let us consider an example. Let us assume that you hypothesize that first-year college students procrastinate more than fourth-year students. You use 7-point self-rating scales to collect data on the two groups' procrastination levels.
To begin, you must first create a summary of the data using descriptive statistics. Then, you plot the data to examine any outliers by finding the two groups' mean (average) and mode (most frequent rating) of procrastination.
To test your hypothesis, you use inferential statistics. You uncover a significant difference and support for your hypothesis using a t-test to compare the mean ratings of the two groups.
Where Are the Methods of Quantitative Research Used?
You can implement the methods of quantitative research for correlational, descriptive, or experimental research.
- In the case of descriptive research, you can seek an overall summary of study variables.
- In the case of correlational research, you have to investigate relationships between the study variables.
- In the case of experimental research, you must carefully and systematically study whether there exists a cause-and-effect relationship between the variables.
By this time, you should have a good grasp of which is a quantitative method of data collection, the various types of data collection, and application. If you need further understanding, you must go through several examples online.
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