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TYPES OF CHEMICAL BONDS
Do you know that diamond is the solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure? The word ‘diamond' is derived from the Greek word ‘adamao' meaning ‘I tame' or ‘I subdue'. It stands for the hardest steel or hardest substance. The rocks in which diamonds are found are a million years old. If you are student of Chemistry, and you are struggling to write an assignment on diamonds, here is everything you need to know about types of bonding of diamonds.
Each carbon atom is connected to four other carbon atoms by single covalent bonds. Let us explore the types of chemical bondingbefore discussing the structure of diamonds.
Different Types of Bonding in Chemistry
Each bond has a specific role to play in different chemical equations. Before understanding the types of bonding, let us know what bonds in Chemistry are.
What are bonds?
The attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds is called chemical bonds. It can also be regarded as a physical phenomenon of chemical substances being held together by the attraction of atoms. These atoms are attached to each other through sharing, as well as exchanging, of electrons-or electrostatic forces.
Types of Chemical Bonding
1. Ionic Bond:
The ionic bond is the main type of chemical bond. Ionic bonding involves a transfer of an electron. In the process, one atom gains an electron while one atom loses an electron. Here, the ions that are gained carry a positive charge (cation) and the ions that are transferred carry a negative charge (anion). The atoms bond together to forms a molecule.
2. Covalent Bond:
The most common bond in organic molecules is known as a covalent bond. A covalent bond involves the sharing of electrons between two atoms. The pair of shared electrons form a new orbit. The orbit extends around the nuclei of both atoms, producing a molecule. Now, covalent bonds can further be categorized into two different bonds—Polar bonds and hydrogen bonds. Let us know the definitions of these two bonds.
3. Polar Bond:
The polar bond has a complicated definition. Two atoms connected by a covalent bond may exert different attractions for the electrons in the bond. The attraction produces an unevenly distributed charge. The result of this attraction is known as Polar Bond. It can also be regarded as an intermediate case between ionic and covalent bonding. With one end of the molecule slightly negatively charged and the other end slightly positively changed, the polar bond works smoothly in any chemical equation.
4. Hydrogen Bond:
Two adjacent H2O (water) molecules can form a linkage known as a hydrogen bond. The (electronegative) hydrogen atom of one H2O molecule is electrostatically attracted to the (electropositive) oxygen atom of an adjacent water molecule and forms a hydrogen bond.
Hydrogen bonds have only about 1/20th the strength of a covalent bond. However, this bond is sufficient to affect the structure of water and produce many of its unique properties.
Chemical bonding in the hardest substance on Earth
1. Structure of Diamonds
The basic explanation says that diamond is organized in a giant lattice structure with covalent bonds between carbon atoms. To understand the structure of diamonds, you have to follow the physical properties of a diamond.
- Diamond is a very hard metal that needs 4000 degree Celsius to melt.
- If you want to break it, you have to break strong covalent bonds operating in 3- dimensions.
- Diamonds do not conduct electricity.
- It is insoluble in water and organic solvents.
- No possible attractions could occur between solvent molecules and carbon atoms in a diamond.
The structure of a diamond is formed depending on the physical properties of the same.
2. Crystal Structure of a Diamond:
The crystal structure of a diamond is a face-centred cubic that is also known as FCC lattice. Diamond crystals can form several different shapes based on the cubic form. The formation of atoms in diamond is highly symmetrical. The different shapes that it takes are known as ‘crystal habit.’ The most common crystal habit is the eight-sided octahedron or diamond shape. Diamond crystals can also form cubes, dodecahedra, and combinations of these shapes.
Except for two shape classes, these structures are manifestations of the cubic crystal system. One exception is the flat form called a macle, which is a composite crystal, and the other exception is the class of etched crystals, which have rounded surfaces and may have elongated shapes. These shapes are also known as diamond chemical structure.
3. How many electrons does carbon lack in its outer shell?
The atomic number of carbon is 6. However, the correct answer is 4. A neutron carbon doesn’t lack any electrons. It has the same number of electrons and neutrons. Carbon has two electrons in its inner shell and four electrons in its outer shell.
It can be concluded that carbon lacks 4 electrons in its outer shell. Now that you have read this explanation, you will never have to wonder ‘how many electrons does carbon lack in its outer shell?’
4. What type of bonds does carbon form?
You may often wonder ‘what type of bonds carbon form’ and get confused with multiple explanations. The most common type of bond is a covalent bond. However, there are different levels of covalent bonding.
Carbon mainly forms covalent form. It can also form non-polar covalent (pure covalent) bonds when it bonds to itself. It forms polar covalent bonds with elements that have a slightly different electronegativity.
The carbon-oxygen bond is a polar covalent bond, but the electrons aren't shared equally between the atoms.
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