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GPHY102 Physical Geography

Questions:
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
Complete the following three exercises. Answer each of the questions individually, in order, in a neat typewritten report complete with tables and figures. Answers should be succinct sentences, direct and to the point. Using 12-point font and one-inch margins, the total length of your written submission should be approximately 3-5 double-spaced pages (excluding Tables and Figures). Make sure to attach completed graphs (i.e., climographs) for Question 9. You will need a calculator (or laptop). You are welcome to use MS Excel for your calculations. There are several files associated with this exercise (pdfs and Excel spreadsheets) posted on onQ.

Exercise 1 - Questions (16 marks)
1.Compare Maps 1 through 3. Describe changes to the weather of The Pas, Manitoba over this time period. What caused these changes? (3 marks)

2.Based on the information in Map 3, complete the table below to compare the weather recorded at Edmonton, Alberta; Trout Lake, Ontario; and Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. Be sure to include proper units. (5 marks)

3.Refer to Map 4.
a.Examine the air temperature and dew point of the air for stations falling within the shaded areas that indicate precipitation. What can you say about the relationship of air temperature and the air’s dew point for stations within these areas of precipitation? (2 marks)
b.Contrast these differences between air temperature and air’s dew point temperature to those in the southwestern United States. What is the relationship between air temperature and dew-point difference, and the potential for precipitation? (2 marks)

4.Refer to Map 5. Identify the area with the greatest pressure gradient. Calculate the pressure gradient (mb/km) across at least 5 isobars. Note that a degree of latitude equals approximately 100 km. Although there are no weather stations in the areas of the steepest gradients, speculate as to what the wind speeds could potentially reach in this region. (4 marks)

Exercise 2 - Questions (12 marks)
5.Examine the weather data for Kingston, ON (Latitude 44° 15' N; Longitude 76° 30' W; Elevation 104 m), in July 1900 and July 2020 that are contained in the attached data sheets. Fill in the summary columns for each year. The Excel files are posted on onQ. (4 marks)

6.Provide a general comparison of the weather in July 1900 with that in July 2020. Highlight the most significant differences between the two years. (2 marks)

7.Compare the data you have entered into the table with the July climate normals that are entered in the first column. In meteorological terminology ‘normals’ are averages and from a long time period (typically 30 years). In this instance, the normals for Kingston are based on data collected from 1981 to 2010. Based on these data, answer the following questions:
a)What generalizations can you make about Kingston weather in July 1900 and 2020 in comparison to the long-term average (i.e., 1981-2010 average)? Was the weather in July 1900 and July 2020 normal or abnormal? Explain. (3 marks)
b)Can these observations be used to support or contradict the argument for global climate change? Why or why not? (3 marks)
There have been several climate stations in Kingston over the years. Queen’s University operated the climate station in Kingston from 1872-1957. The weather station was in City Park, just east of main campus. Other, more recent locations include the Kingston airport, and the Kingston pumping station.

Exercise 3 - Questions (27 marks)
8.Complete Table 3 below based on climate normal data (1981-20110) obtained from the Government of Canada website. Using the monthly temperature and precipitation data provided in Table 3 below and from the government of Canada website, prepare climographs for Tofino, BC; Yellowknife, NT; and Kingston, ON, contrasting the temperature and precipitation data for these three locations. Use the climograph template provided for the assignment. This format is similar to those in your textbook (e.g., p. 227 (Toronto, ON) and 229 (Resolute, NU). Be sure to include appropriate captions including station details. You also need to calculate and provide the total annual precipitation, the mean annual temperature, and the annual range in temperature (based on mean monthly temperatures). Submit the graphs with the rest of your assignment. (15 marks)

9.For this question, you will be interpreting the climographs generated in Question 8. Address the following:
a)First, determine the type of climate exhibited at each centre in the context of the Köppen Climate Classification Systems (e.g., Bsk). You will need to reference Chapter 9 of your text. (6 marks)
b)Compare and contrast the mean annual temperature (and temperature ranges) and precipitation data for Tofino, Yellowknife, and Kingston. Explain why the characteristic temperature and precipitation differ between the three locations (i.e., describe the factors that affect the climates at these locations). (6 marks)