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Investigating the Energy Source for Skeletal Muscle Contraction - BIO270 Lab Assignment 2


? develop an understanding of skeletal muscle structure and function.
? compile and present the appropriate information for an Introduction section of a scientific manuscript.
o become aware of the conventions of scientific writing.
o become aware (i.e. metacognition) of their individual writing process and improve writing through revision based upon formative feedback.
o practice writing clearly, concisely, and precisely.


Consult appendices of the Pre-Lab 2 Assignment for a general summary of the contents, transition words to use in an introduction section of a scientific manuscript, and general guidelines for writing a title for a scientific manuscript. You may also find it useful to consult the file ‘BIO270 Lab Assignment Tips 2021’ in the General Laboratory Files folder on Quercus, where you will find suggestions from TAs and a list of common mistakes to
avoid (compiled from previous student assignments).

Submit your assignment electronically following the instructions posted on Quercus by the submission deadline. (32 points: mark recorded out of 9.5).
Note: Although the lab will be performed in pairs, you must write your own individual assignment to be handed in.


The Lab 2 Assignment consists of three parts:
1. A written Introduction section based upon the scenario outlined below (submission must also include a Literature cited section (use CSE format – see the file ‘Citing Sources in BIO270H1 and BIO271H1’).

? Appropriate title. Refer to Appendix 3 of the Pre-Lab 2 Assignment for guidelines. 
? Your introduction should include relevant background information, identification of the ‘gap’ in the knowledge in the field, rationale for investigating this ‘gap’, presentation of a hypothesis or research question,
a brief explanation of how you conducted the experiment, and a prediction of the outcome of your experiment (supported by a peer-reviewed citation).
? You must include at least these three cited (referenced) sources: BIO270 Pre-Lab 2 Manual or BIO270 Laboratory 2 Manual, chapter 6 of Moyes and Schulte, Principles of Animal Physiology, 3rd Edition, and one peer-reviewed journal article (located and retrieved by you). Note that if it appears in the Literature Cited section, it must be cited in-text also.
i. For assistance with your citations, see the file ‘Citing Sources in BIO270H1 and BIO271H1’
? Include a Literature Cited/References section that includes your three sources cited in the body of your introduction.
i. Note that if it appears in the Literature Cited/References section, it must be cited in-text also.
ii. For assistance with your citations, please refer to the file ‘Citing Sources in BIO270H1 and BIO271H1’
? For assistance with figure design, please refer to file ‘Tips for creating figures in BIO270 and BIO271’.
? For a dissection of an introduction section of a manuscript, view the recording on Quercus ‘Deconstruction of an introduction’.
? To receive full marks, students must address the format and style guidelines in Appendix 1 of the Pre-Lab 2 Assignment.

Learning Outcomes

The primary categories in the marking rubric for the Introduction portion of this assignment are the following:
a) Title 2 marks
b) Format and Style 4 marks
c) Introduction specific. Refer to Appendix 1 of the Pre-Lab

2 Assignment. 16 marks
d) Citations: in-text and Literature Cited/References 4 marks

2. A figure illustrating the results of pooled Lab section fatigue experiment 4 marks

3. Questions regarding your EMG fatigue experiment 2 marks 
Submit this assignment online following the instructions posted on Quercus. Refer to the assignment submission deadlines for the specific due date for your assignment. The Introduction section should be a

maximum of 1.5 pages, 12pt font, double spaced, standard margins. 

Background Scenario* (this is a fabricated scenario and will require some imagination and creativity!)
At this time in the history of muscle physiology, the current state of knowledge is the following:
? We know that a nervous impulse is required to trigger skeletal muscle contraction
? We know the mechanics of the sliding filament theory, including knowledge of the components involved (i.e. myosin thick filaments, actin thin filaments, troponin, tropomyosin)
? We know that the sarcoplasmic reticulum stores Ca2+ in the sarcoplasm
? We know that Ca2+ is the link between excitation and contraction
? We know that ATP is required by SERCA to pump Ca2+ into the Sarcoplasmic reticulum and by the Na+/K+-ATPase to re-establish ionic gradients after the nerve impulses

However, it is not known whether ATP is the ultimate energy source required for muscle contraction (e.g. what energizes myosin).

Consider yourself a muscle physiologist who would like to determine whether ATP is the molecule that supplies the energy required for skeletal muscle contraction. You decided to carry out the experiment you performed in part II of Laboratory 2 (Glycerinated Muscle Contraction). Refer to the Lab 2 Manual for a detailed procedure.
You will use the pooled class data for your Lab section as the results on which to base your written Introduction.

Reflecting on this data, you should write an Introduction section to the scientific manuscript in which you would be presenting this data. Use the Pre-Laboratory 2 Manual and chapter 6 of Moyes and Schulte, Principles of animal physiology, 3rd Edition as your primary sources of information (cited correctly: See the file ‘Citing Sources in BIO270H1 and BIO271H1’). In addition, you will be required to find one relevant and appropriate
peer-reviewed article, which you must incorporate into your introduction and cite correctly. For example, the peer-reviewed article may demonstrate the role of ATP in some other physiological process – you want to provide rationale as to why you are testing the possibility that ATP provides the energy source required for skeletal muscle contraction. In addition to in-text citations, you should include full citations in a ‘Literature Cited’ section following your Introduction (See ‘Citing Sources in BIO270H1 and BIO271H1’).

Recognize that this scenario is not the same as the scenario presented in the Pre-Lab 2 assignment. The gap in knowledge is different and this should be reflected in the organization of your introduction.

Note: Although the Pre-Lab will be performed in pairs, you must write your own individual assignment to be handed in. Use the format below as your template for completing your Lab 2 Assignment 5 BIO270 Lab 2 Assignment 2021

Name: _____________________ Student ID: _____________________
Lab Section: ______________________ Date Due: _____________________
Name of Lab Partner: _________________________________

Title [2 marks]

Introduction [20 marks]:

Literature Cited [4 marks]

2. Design a figure to show any relationship between fatigue (‘Time to 50% maximum clench force’) and forearm circumference in your Lab section. Include a line-of-best fit.
[4 marks]

3. Describe the results from Q.2 in 1-2 sentences [1 marks]. Provide one plausible physiological explanation for the fatigue you observed/experienced in the Lab. [1mark] 

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