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MOD004061 Contemporary Issues in Health Care


Executive Summary

The health status of the people living in Ealing is largely affected by the various determinant of health. These include the people's ethnicity, their environment, nutrition habits, education level, wealth status, socioeconomic status, disability, self-care and early years life experiences. This diversity causes health inequalities such as is evidenced in Ealing where the life expectancy in some areas is higher than the national average while lower in others. Various determinants of health contribute to these inequalities but if addressed, they could result in the improved overall health of the population of Ealing. Strategies such as promoting education would help in addressing this as education increases the chances of securing employment and thus a stable income which translates to a higher socioeconomic status. In turn, this means that the person is likely to have a better status of health. Education should also include health awareness and promotion campaigns in schools and other avenues of communication where people are educated on the importance of maintaining their health or seeking health care services at all times.


Determinants of health refer to a range of personal, environmental, social and economic factors that influence the overall health of an individual, (Public Health England, 2017). This means that the health of an individual could be termed as good or not based on their environment, social factors or even personal factors. For instance, personal factors such as gender, age, genetics, ethnicity or lifestyle are important determinants of their health. If the person is born in a family with a history of heart conditions, then they are also at risk of developing the same conditions at some point in their lives. If the person has been living a lifestyle such as with poor diet and no physical activity, then they are likely to develop conditions such as diabetes and obesity. If they are aged, then they are at risk of developing conditions that are highly likely to occur with age such as dementia (Jaul & Barron, 2017).

Other than the personal factors that are largely intrinsic, an individual’s health is likely to be influenced by external factors such as their environment, the society they live in, their social status, employment status, education, living conditions, water and sanitation and access to health care services. For instance, Zajacova & Lawrence (2018) report that if a person is educated, then they have a higher chance of securing employment or a stable source of income. This means that they can easily afford proper housing and decent living conditions, afford and access health care services more easily and even live in a neighbourhood that is more secure and with better living conditions. It, however, also means that they are more likely to afford a car and could, therefore, become less physically active which would also predispose them to lifestyle conditions such as diabetes, obesity and heart conditions. As such, the determinants of health are an important aspect of health to consider for individuals, local areas and nationally.

There are several  determinants of health that cause health inequalities in the Ealing area of London. According to the government, the life expectancy of different areas in Ealing could be higher than the national average while it is lower in some areas (Office for National Statistics (ONS), 2020). This evidences health inequalities that should be addressed to improve the lives of the residents of Ealing. The ONS further reports that the inequalities are complex, interrelated and inter-generational.

These begin at the early years of life and progress to the rest of an individual's life. But if identified, they can be addressed from the source and thus help in improving the health status of everybody in Ealing. For instance, if the individuals are sensitised to the dangers of sedentary lifestyles, then they would be cautious to ensure they avoid lifestyle choices that would put them at risk of disease regardless of their social status. For example, more nursery places and subsidised exercise programmes could improve the health of the community. Moreover, if the government puts more effort into ensuring education for all, then every child in Ealing would be empowered to take charge of their health from an early age (Armstrong, 2021). This report discusses various determinants of health, their importance and how they result in health inequalities within the Ealing area of London.

Ethnicity social and community net work dalgren

Ethnicity refers to the historical, heritage or cultural background that an individual inherits from their parents and which also gives them unique characteristics that are associated with that group of people. According to Butler (2017), ethnicity is an important social determinant of health. This is because the ethnic background of a person determines how marginalised they could be or not. In Ealing, minority groups are often marginalised or racially segregated, (Baciu, et al., 2017). This influences their overall health as they could find it difficult to access health services or develop meaningful relationships with other members of society.

Other than the ethnic minorities, the white majority in Ealing have better access to health care services and thus making them have better health statuses compared to the rest as Baciu, et al., (2017) further explain. This explains why the average life expectancy for both men and women in Ealing is higher than the national average in some areas and lower in others. To eliminate this disparity, health care providers should ensure they provide culturally sensitive services as is explained by Harrison et al., (2019). This makes their clients feel welcomed, respected and thus encourages them to continue seeking health care services. Ethnicity further influences the health status of an individual due to reasons such as genetics. For instance, people of African origin are more susceptible to high blood pressure compared to the white living in Ealing.

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