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Biology Exam Questions and Medical Scenarios: A Comprehensive Review Guide

The SA and AV Node: Understanding the Differences (2 marks)

1.    Explain the difference between the SA and AV node? (2 marks)

2.    Explain the main function of a neurotransmitter? (2 marks)

3.    Explain why saltatory conduction is faster than continuous conduction? (2 marks)

4.    Using an example, explain what a negative feedback loop is. (2 marks)

5.    Kidneys produce about 350 litres of filtrate a day. In light of this, why do we only produce 1-2 litres of urine on average per day? (2 marks)

6.    Using examples highlight the difference between active transport and simple diffusion. (2 marks)

7.    Using examples, explain how RNA vaccines are different to a live attenuated vaccines. (2 marks)

8.    Ageing is not a pathology – do you agree with this statement? Use evidence to support your answer. (2 marks)

9.    Explain the role of hormones in the regulation of hunger. (2 marks)

10.    With reference to the renal and endocrine systems, explain the bodies initial response to becoming dehydrated. (2 marks)

You must answer Scenario A and either Scenario B or Scenario C Abraham (43 years old) has been feeling unwell the last few days. His initial symptom was a productive cough, and he then developed a temperature which today you measure at 38.9°c. He has been managing to work, but in the last 24 hours has started to feel quite short of breath. He has received a diagnosis of pneumonia.

1. With reference to homeostasis and the respiratory system, can you explain why Abraham has become short of breath? 

Cybil (58 years old) had a fall after she tripped on a step three days ago. She had a small wound on her arm but has noticed that it has become quite painful to touch. The skin is also red around the wound, swollen and there is some exudate evident. The practice nurse cleans and dresses the wound. When the nurse takes Susan’s observations, she has a temperature of 38.6 °c, a pulse of 112, Respiration rate of 23, Oxygen saturations of 96% on air and Blood Pressure of 95/70. Susan says she really does not feel well.  With reference to sepsis provide an exploration of this scenario. You should include some discussion of pharmacology. 

 Scenario  C (max 750 words & 20 marks)

Mavis (84 years old), referred to you in the memory clinic for assessment of memory impairment. On the pre-clinic questionnaire she has reported a mild to moderate deterioration in all aspects of her cognition over the past six months. The patient herself acknowledges that there have been memory problems, but feels it is just her short-term memory that is an issue. She has been prescribed Donepezil 10mg OD. With reference to dementia provide an exploration of this scenario. Please include discussion of the mechanism of action of Donepezil.

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