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Functional Beverages from Prekese: A Natural and Nutritious Alternative

Market Justification

Functional beverages are nonalcoholic drink containing nontraditional ingredients like minerals, vitamins, amino acids, dietary fibers (DFs), probiotics, or added raw fruits (Raman, Ambalam & Doble 2019). In the wake of healthy eating and dieting, functional drinks have been brought into focus. Drinks that can positively impact health are preferred by the public. This can be seen to be attributed to the incidence of diet-related illnesses and the public awareness towards safer healthier meal options (Saura-Calixto et al., 2006). Just like other functional fruit drinks, their efficacy solely depends on the antioxidants imparted from the fruit itself. To fulfill the existing functional fruit needs, Tetrapleura tetraptera (Prekese) was marked as a fruit of choice. Abundant in the West African region, it is easily regarded as a superfruit. It is a native indigenous fruit with a high number of antioxidants compared to other superfruits (Komline-Sanderson, 2020).

Prekese is identified as a plant that flowers in the family of peas. For centuries it has been used by the people of Ghana and Nigeria for its medicinal properties (Sun-Waterhouse, 2011). The inherent aromas resulted in its use for meal preparations as a spice in food and soups. Fruits associated with the tree are commonly referred to as superfruits based on their properties of antioxidants and nutrients essential to boost the human immune system to fight diseases and ailments (Osei-Tutu et al.,1988).

This research is thus aimed at coming up with industrial processes to first extract the Prekese syrup which contains the nutrients and antioxidants that give the Prekese fruit its medicinal properties and then reconstituting the syrup into a beverage that serves as a functional drink with high potential of reducing hypertension as well as being a good vitamin C source, natural sugars, and a pleasant smell. The natural sugars endowed into the fruit make it ideal for persons with Diabetes related issues as little or no artificial sweeteners are added to enhance the taste (Microbiology Note, 2020).

The fruit’s natural sugars have been used to replace artificial sweeteners in Ghana (Abessi,2009). The syrup extract is used to flavor soft drinks with the approval of regulating bodies such as the Food and Drugs Authority. In its marketing, it has been advertised to regress the effects of hypertension and respiratory illnesses. With more insights into the adverse health effects of artificial sweeteners, most residents in Ghana prefer soft drinks flavored using the organic fruit of the Prekese (Abessi, 2009).

Raw Material Storage and Specification

There has been noted a high increase in the demand for prekese drinks in Ghna attributed to its functional nature as reported by (Adadi & Kanwugu 2020). Consumer demand for safe, functional and fresh product, such as fruit drink, has been increasing as a consequence of the research for a healthier life. Many substances in fruit, especially fruits such as ascorbic acid, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and phenolic compounds are excellent antioxidants that are able to stabilize free radicals. The important of these antioxidants in the maintenance of health and prevention of severe pathologies, including different kinds of cancer, cardiovascular and neurological diseases, and aging related disorders has been describe (Sun et al. 2002; Guarnier et al. 2007; Lim et al. 2007). The beneficial properties of fruits have thus been widely investigated. One of the main classes of natural antioxidant in plants, fruit and beverages is polyphenolic compounds.

In the same step of being an organic fruit, it has over 40 volatile compounds which work in tandem as a natural preservative, thus eliminating the need for the use of artificial methods of preservation. (Lartey, G.S.T.J., 2016)

The market was found to be ripe for the idea of a natural cost-efficient alternative to the fruit drinks in the market.

Figure 1: A representation of the fruit juice market in the United Kingdom from 2013 to 2020 (in million GBP) courtesy of

From figure 1: above, it can be deduced that the market for fruit juices is on the rise as from 2019 taking into consideration the COVID-19 protocols and shows past steadiness in demand. This thus proves a limited barrier to entry into the market.

Figure 2a: Market share of fruit juice in the United Kingdom in 2020 by flavor courtesy of

Figure 2a: above represents the availability of a significant market, second after orange flavors for other flavors of fruit juices an avenue that can be exploited.

The functional beverages market size was valued at $ 110,148.9 million in 2020 and is estimated to reach $200,080.3 million by 2030, registering a CAGR of 5.9% from 2021 to 2030.

Fig 2b. Global functional beverages depiction. Adapted from

Fig 2c. Functional beverage market depiction from 2020-2030.Adapted from

The fruits are received and stored in well ventilated rooms at a constant temperature of 40-60oC. A fan will be installed to maintain even temperatures throughout. The specification for humidity is a maximum of 10% moisture content to avoid the spoilage of fruits. (7 Factors That Prolong Your Food Storage Supply, 2015).

Prekese is received, stored, graded, and sorted. The up to standard fruits are washed and separated from foreign particulates. The resulting cleaned fruits undergoes size reduction and are boiled for 40 minutes. The resulting broth is filtered, and the excess water evaporated at 90oC to give a concentrated syrup. terephthalate bottling with all required labeling. The syrup undergoes reconstitution by adding maple syrup sweeteners and water needed to achieve 1:1:60 on a weight basis. Maple syrup sweeteners are preferred being a natural source of sugars. Other sweeteners that could be used include but not limited to: honey, coconut sugar, agave nectar, date sugar and xylitol. The final product is packed in respective polyethylene

Production Process

Fig 3: Process flow chart











Applies principles of agitation and vibration to rid fruits of dirt and foreign objects.

Reduction ratio 30mm


T=150 oC

Filtration through a filter medium in a vacuum

70% water removal



Mixing using Agitation and baffles







Steam and electricity


Summary Of Utility Requirements:



WATER (kg)







Agitated Immersion Washer

Figure 4: Photo courtesy of


Figure 5: Photo courtesy of

Kettle Brew

Figure 6: Photo courtesy of 1000L_1600188176493.html?spm=a2700.7724857.normal_offer.d_image.69e33b5cnRvIFN&s=p

Rotary Drum Vacuum Filter

Figure 7: Photo courtesy of

Thin-Filmed Agitated Evaporator

Figure 8: Photo courtesy of


Figure 9: Courtesy of

Filter selection 

In Filtration, a porous barrier is used to separate solid particles from a liquid. The barrier can be a cloth, screen, cartridge, or granular material. Stranding, cake, filtration, deep-bed, filtration, and membrane filtration are included in this equipment category. Since the number of equipment options is large, it is necessary to examine each application to obtain the optimum equipment selection and design. Solid/liquid separation by filtration generally is divided into four steps pre-treatment, thickening, separation, and post-treatment. Any separation operation can utilize one, two, three, or all four of these steps. (Wakeman, R. and Tarleton, S., 2005). Pre-treatment involves either coagulation or flocculation to improve the separation operation. For dilute suspension, thickening often is beneficial in reducing the cost of the separation. The separation step is normally accomplished with equipment such as cake filters, filtering centrifuges, or strainers. Post-treatment often is necessary whenever the clarity of the effluent stream the dryness of solid material, or the presence of solute in the mother liquor does not meet the product specification. Various types of settlers, centrifuges, or filters can be used to improve the clarity of the effluent while washing can be used to reduce the solute in the mother liquor. (Svarovsky, L., 2000).

Before the selection of the appropriate device for this solid/liquid separation, it is essential to analyze the characteristics of the solid particles and the liquid involved in the system. Particle size is the most important parameter in the separation since it directly affects both the filterability and the settling rate of particles. As a rule, the smaller the particle the more difficult it is to separate. (Wakeman, R. and Tarleton, S., 2005). Solid concentration affects the type of separators that can be considered. For example, cake filters can handle a high solids content but will not work for dilute suspensions that do not form cakes. Concerning the liquid phase, viscosity is the most important property since the filtration rate and sedimentation velocity are inversely proportional to the viscosity of the suspending fluid. (Tarleton, S. and Wakeman, R., 2006). Generally, direct measurement of the viscosity is necessary since it has been affected by changes in temperature, liquid purity, and dissolved solids. Factors such as pH, toxicity, corrosivity, particle shape, and particle strength can also affect the separation process and must be considered as in design solution.

Production Process Flow

Factors For Selection

Performance, capital, and operating costs are some of the core factors that are considered in the selection of a filter.

Filter Size

Factors to be considered here include the drop in pressure that is noted as acceptable and the time needed for maintenance. The element type used, and in most situations the selection takes aim to reduce the amount of space occupied.

Surface Versus Depth Filters

The permeability of surface-type filters is typically poor. The element area must be raised to keep the velocity of flow through the element low in order to produce a fairly low pressure drop through the filter.


Complete compatibility with the fluid and system are also important requirements for the filter element. Compatibility with the fluid refers to the absence of degradation or chemical assault, as well as the presence of a chemically compatible element. 'Mechanical compatibility,' on the other hand, is required to verify that the element is both strong enough for the job and free of migration.

Selection Of Media

A certain type of filter and element (or set of components) is often preferred for a given purpose. Additionally, filtering needs might be somewhat different. As a result, rather of being a contamination, the residue gathered by the filter might be a useful component that can be readily removed. Similarly, when the residue collected is polluted, filter components that are easy to clean or replace may be a need for the filter design. Cake release and solids blinding resistance are both important factors to consider when choosing a cloth. Because of solids blinding, coated textiles can aid improve cake release while also increasing the life of the medium.

Selection Of Filter Type

After the filter media type has been determined, filter type selection should be made based on process requirements such as the permissible pressure drop, physical size, cleaning duration, cleaning technique, residue value, and actions to be done on it, and so on. There are several elements that influence whether a continuous or batch filter should be used. The cost and maintainability of the filter are other essential variables to consider. (Alireza B. 2016).

Table Basic Types Of Fluid Filters (Iranian Petroleum Standards, 1997)

Table General Selection Guide For Fluid Filters (Iranian Petroleum Standards, 1997)

Based on the foregoing considerations, a rotating drum vacuum filter was chosen for the filtering of the Prekese slurry.

In terms of design, application, and operation, the rotating drum vacuum filter is fairly simple. It is also a very successful solid/liquid separation device due to its unique techniques of managing (displacing) produced cake solids, minimal operational manpower needs, and ability to filter continuous or batch process flows.

Prekese Material and Energy Balance Flow Chart (kg/h)

The evaluation of the filter is based on the filter area provided by the drum and output expected thereof. Thus, to enable the correct sizing of auxiliary components, the filtration area and application type must be taken to account.


Figure 10: Rotary drum vacuum filtration (Komline-Sanderson, 1996)

Filtrate pipes are essential for any rotary vacuum filter that makes use of a rolling discharge, scraping unit or an endless belting. The radial control of air and vacuum is attained using valve bodies. The design is such that fluids are only in the piping’s and the drum’s interior is moisture free and at standard atmospheric pressures.

The design of the filtration septum allows for the imparting of the following characteristics:

  • provision of required clarity in filtrates,
  • acceptability in the rate of flow,
  • Flow characteristics imparted hold over time to ensure longevity of use.
  • the ability to wear and tear over long periods of time
  • inexpensive.

The speed at which the drum rotates at and the vat level account for two major adjustable units in an RVF.

This determines the ratio of the filtration cycling. In ideal situations this parameter is always set at high. Lower settings are used for: Slurries that prove difficult to filter and those with high densities.

For designs that require its use it is essential in the control of vacuum and air pressure. The operation depends on the regulation of pressure, either by venting or buildup of pressures.

The septum needs ability to release residues and offer repulsion towards bindings by materials. This is achieved using coatings to impart these abilities. Synchronicity must be attained between the knife doing the scraping, the speed of the rotating drum and the rate of filtration from the septum. This process should be such that the transfer of the material to undergo filtration is continuous.

Figure 11: Filtration cycle for a rotary-drum filter (Svarovsky, 1979).

The mechanics of fluid flow through a porous media is investigated to get a formular for sizing a rotary drum filter. A porous material develops on the surface of the filter drum as it spins through the slurry tank, increasing the barrier to liquid flow. The filter cake’s surface is at atmospheric pressure. If the pressure downstream of the filter medium is constant (due to a vacuum pump), then the pressure drops across the filter cake and the medium is also constant. Because of the rising barrier to flow, the liquid flow rate falls as the filter cake thickens.

The Kozeny-Carmen equation for flow through porous medium serves as the foundation for developing a method to compute the filtration area. The laminar flow takes a winding course through the cake. For a differential cake thickness, the Kozeny- Carmen equation is used.

-(dP/dx) = [4.17s2μvs(1-ε)2] /ε2……………………………………(i)

Where P is the pressure at any point in the cake shown schematically in Figure 12, the specific surface (surface area per unit volume of the particle), 1μ, the liquid viscosity Vs, the superficial liquid velocity, and s, the porosity of the cake.

Operation Conditions

Figure 12: Section of a filter cake (Silla, 2003).

The differential mass of dry cake, dm, is given by

dm= (1-ε) ρs AF dx  ………………………………….. (ii)

From equations i and ii,

-dP/dm = ks2μvs(1-ε) / ρs ε2 AF   ……………………………………………(iii)

Specific resistance, α is defined as

α = ks2(1-ε) / ρs ε2 ……………………………………………………………. (iv)

The specific resistance, which has units of m/kg, depends on the characteristics of the cake. As the pressure across the cake increases, the porosity of the cake decreases because the cake becomes compressed. Consequently, the specific resistance increases.

The rotary-drum filter is to filter 20 m3/h of a prekese slurry at 20 °C. The pressure drop across the cake is 9.541 psi. The slurry contains 0.15 mass fraction of prekese fruit, and the filter cake contains 0.40 mass fraction of water.


  • Water density 998.3 kg/m3
  • Water viscosity (20 °C) 0.001 Pa-s (1 cp)
  • Prekese density 2709 kg/m3

Average density of the slurry (Slurry - Density n.d.),

ρ = 0.85 (998.3) + 0.15 (2709) = 1255 kg/m3

A standard filter of 23.22 m2 surface area chosen, will result in a safety factor of 29.5%. From Table 2, the sized filter will require 11.18 kw and 22.37 kw to power the drum drive and agitator drive respectively. The filter with a roll discharge has a filter size diameter of 3.05m and a nominal length of 2.44m.

Table 2:  Standard rotary drum filter parameters (Silla, 2003)

Classification Of Membrane Separation Processes {Paul DR, (2004)}

The benefits of adopting membrane technology in the beverage industry relate to the economy, working conditions, the environment, and product quality (Koseoglu et al., 1990; Hagg, 1998). The juice is mostly processed following enzymatic pulping. This pre-treatment of juices before membrane layer filtration is typically required to increase filtering overall performance. Enzyme combinations known as pectinases are utilized to hydrolyze pectin directly into poly-d-galacturonic acidity fragments, lowering the viscosity of the juice with relatively low pulp and leading to an increase in penetration fluxes as well as yield recovery (Alvarez et al., 1998).

The inability to use turbid water, bacterial abundance from accumulation, the expensive nature in the repair and purchase of the filters, and the requirement of infrastructure and utilities to maintain the high differential pressures required (Membrane Filtration Method, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages, Applications., 2020).

Traditional methods of separation in the case of fruit juices included sieving with a significant amount of heat treatment in the product preparation. This pretreatment has been shown to lose the natural characteristics inherent to the natural fruits by destroying the aroma, color, nutritional loss, and vitamin loss. The membrane filtration methods offer a way to process the fruit juices without altering the organoleptic and nutrients in the fruit juices. It, however, suffers in the lack of durability and high initial and operating costs. The use of a vacuum rotary drum filter bridges this gap. The clarification of the product is achieved with acceptable quality. The utility costs of this system are within economical regions and the system requires minimal maintenance under normal running conditions compared to membrane filtration methods.

The evaluation of sensory and physiochemical analysis on the Prekese finished product. The physicochemical properties will be evaluated by determining the total phenolic content, total dissolved solids, acidity, pH, and soluble solids present (Ronald & Ronald,1991). A panel of sensory analyst will be required to grade the finished product on the merit of flavor, taste, color, and the overall coming together of the ingredients.

To make the final product appealing and enhance ease of use, the methods and means of packaging are essential. Packaging plays an important role in ease of consumption, protection against contamination, and helps to ease the consumption of the fruit juice from the packaging. The design and choice of packaging are thus intended towards ease of transportation, trade, and consumption.

The packaging will be divided into four distinct levels to fulfill the needs of different situations:




Comprises of the foremost barrier in close contact with the product. Intended for retail use.



It houses a given number of primary packaging. It is intended for distribution services.



It encloses several secondary packaging

Pallets of boxes.


Packing to hold multiple tertiary packages mainly for long-distance travel.

Freight containers

The materials for packaging should ideally be stored in designated areas away from possible sources of contamination and being infested by pests. Areas intended for storage are to be used for the sole purpose of storage to limit the incidence of cross-contamination (Supplier fruit safety code of practice, 2013).

Date coding is important in the tracing of ingredients and processes. When the labels are used it is crucial to determine and avoid the incidence of contamination via foreign materials.

The labeling should follow prescribed quality standards and legislations, needing the following information on the product label:

  • Allergens that the product may contain
  • Preparation/cooking instructions
  • Storage conditions after opening
  • Storage conditions before opening
  • The name and address of the supplier
  • The name of the fruit
  • The production date or code
  • The quantity contained in the package
  • The shelf life is written in day/month/year
  • The shelf-life on each portion

(Supplier fruit safety code of practice, 2013)

Instructions on how to undertake the manufacturing process will be provided in detail to enhance, reinforce, or impart knowledge to the users. The instructions will be made available and will involve all the processes from raw material receiving to the packaging of the final products.

Extraction fans and ventilators will be installed in the receiving and storage warehouse to reduce temperature and humidification in the room.

It is expected that the raw materials are fed into the process with as much efficiency as possible. This in turn reflects the need for raw material fed into a system not to exceed the input flow rate for that system. This also applies in the processing of intermediate materials; these materials should not be produced in quantities above those that are needed.

If there occurs a situation where the intermediate product needs to be stored due to process breakdowns, it is advised that the intermediate be treated as a final product and stored in the same conditions as the final product and free from potential sources of contamination.

For all finished products, the packaging should include the batch numbers for reference and tracking. It is also prudent to maintain a sample of the finished product for every batch if the need arises to countercheck.

For reworked products, they should include details on the need for rework and batch numbers to ascertain this information.

The solid washer is to rid the fruit of sand particle since the fruits are harvested on the ground. The ratio of Prekese fruit to water is 1:4 respectively.

The solid washer should not be filled to the brim when in operation to prevent the fruit from falling off during washing

The milling station consists of a hammer mill . The safety wear includes ear and eye protection, mandatory during operation. A visual inspection of the mobile parts in the mill will be done and ascertained to be within the acceptable region before running. When the mill is operational it is advisable to only run material at the feed rate of the mill and not anymore. Careful monitoring of the working of the mill should be done and shutdown initiated at the onset of any issues promptly. When a production session is completed, there needs to be a log of operating hours to facilitate the timing of maintenance work.

Extraction of the milled pulp is done batch-wise in the kettle brew boiler. Extraction is done using water as the medium and application of heat to a temperature of 100ºC. Extraction time is about 45mins above which most active ingredients might be lost or destabilized

The pulp after milling undergoes mixing with water in the ratio of 1:1 on a mass basis. The desired components are leached out by boiling the mixture at 100 oC. Boiling temperature and processing time must be followed according to the standard operating condition.

Handling Operations

The personnel working on the Rotary Drum Vacuum Filter should be well trained and experienced in the working of the machinery. The personnel should be in safety clothing and be a minimum number of two operating personnel.




1. Influent flow


To determine filtration rate

2. InfluentTotal soluble solids


To determine mass loading to filters.

To troubleshoot the short filter run problem

3. EffluentTotal soluble solids


To determine filter performance

To determine whether to backwash filters.

4. Head loss


To determine when to backwash the filter.

5. Filter run time

Each run

To identify short-run periods.

6. Backwash flowrate


To optimize backwash flow rate and duration.

7. Filter aid


To optimize type and dosage.

8. Influent and effluent


To determine performance.

The filter operation is generally automatic and requires limited operator control. Possible process variables are thus limited to filter run time, length and duration of backwash, and conditioning of the influent Prekese fruit extract.

The length of the filter run is generally determined by the time required to reach a predetermined head loss or is set at a predetermined length of time. Head loss control is the most used because it minimizes backwashing or filter renewal. Increasing the final head loss point allows longer filter runs but results in lower filter rates and possible solids breakthrough. The head loss point setting is also limited by the maximum available system pressure.

Effective cleaning of the filter media in deep granular filters is very important to successful plant operation. If the filter is not cleaned well, solids can accumulate, leading to filter cracking. Because all filter backwash water must be returned for treatment excess backwashing should be avoided. The exact backwashing needs may vary depending on the type of the Prekese fruit extract and filter aids employed.

Filter performance can be improved by adding filter aids. These act to strengthen the floc, control penetration of the floc into the filter bed, and improve solids capture on precoat filters. As a result, final solids of the Prekese extract are reduced and the allowable flow rate can be increased.

The performance can be measured by the suspended solids level of the liquid effluent from the filtration process. A well-operated filtration process produces an effluent with low-suspended solids concentrations; removal efficiencies of 90 to 99 % are common.

Heat-sensitive products easily become denatured or lose some active ingredients when exposed to heat up to a certain temperature for some time. The agitated thin-film evaporator is employed to perform heating of heat-sensitive products under controlled conditions so that the active ingredients of the heat-sensitive products are not denatured (WATANABE, TOYAMA & NAKAMURA 1976). This is achieved by performing the evaporation under reduced atmospheric pressure and creating a thin film on the heated wall which promotes a high heat transfer coefficient hence reducing the residence time ensuring quick and efficient evaporation.

The operating temperatures and pressure as prescribed should be maintained at 368 K and 1 bar respectively. There needs thus to be a venting escape to control the pressure keeping it at the required level and under the maximum allowable working pressures of the column.

The rate of evaporation is dependent on temperature and the temperature of the evaporator is influenced by the temperature of the stream flowing through the jacketed walls hence the temperature of the inlet stream to the evaporator needs to be measured and ensured that it is at the right temperature to promote effective evaporation.

The incorporation of an agitator to ensure uniform heat transfer is crucial. This thus has the effect of reducing the residency time of heat-sensitive products like fruit juices.

Fruit processing requires the use of additives. This is commonly achieved by the process of mixing. For Prekese the required ratio 1:1:60 of the Prekese syrup, sugar, and water respectively to produce the fruit drink.

The flow should be maintained effectively with the requirements being of the feed rate being neither too little risking air pockets nor being too much overwhelming the mixer. Installation of voltage indicators will be installed to indicate the amount of power to the motor to ensure the constant speed of the agitator. With the use of an automated system of control. Automatic feedlines are preferred because mixing of the ingredients can be done automatically reducing batching and process times.

The flow sensor measures the flow rate of the Prekese syrup while the flow sensor (FT-2) and (FT-3) measures the flow rate of water and sugar respectively and sends the signal to the flow recording controllers (FRC) which send a command to water and sugar valves to open in proportion to the syrup.

Operational Step


Control Measure

Critical Limit

Monitoring Method

Corrective Action




Physical hazard: particles in prekese syrup

Change filter when particle found in syrup

Absence of fine particles in syrup

Check syrup sample in lab.

Monitor pressure difference on filter.

Immediate action: Stop the line and change the filter bag. Corrective action: 1) Change the filter bag immediately 2) Reject and Salvage the syrup produced

Lab report, Operator daily book, Filter cleaning schedule, Work permit

This involves the practice of testing products continuously to check for quality issues. They form a base of adherence by utilizing a checklist as a road map to full compliance.

Be of good health

Clean appropriate clothing

Covering exposed hairs on the face and head

Excellent personal hygiene

Food grade gloves

Knowledgeable in the field of practice

No Jewelry/phones/watches 

Cleaning solvents/detergents do not build up.

Follow the cleaning instructions for each piece of equipment.

Surface sanitization of equipmentThere is no accumulation of food or other materials.

There is no dead area in the mechanism to allow bacteria to proliferate.

For Buildings and facilities

A shield will be placed over the above lights. Handwashing supplies (soaps, paper) are replenished.

Disassembly should be simple for cleaning and inspection.

Floors, walls, ceilings, windows, and screens should all be kept clean, and paint should not flake.

Mesh screens to keep insects out.

Clean restrooms

Should not include polychlorinated biphenyls and be developed for food plants (PCBs)

The surrounding region - Clear the area of debris, weeds, grass, and bushes.

There are no cracks or holes.

There are no leaks in the building - roof, walls, or windows.

There are no signs of domestic animals.

There is no standing water in the area.

Windows and doors that are well-sealed

The research investigates the design of a method to produce a functional Prekese fruit drink. The inherent characteristics endowed to the Prekese fruit make it an ideal healthy alternative to synthetic fruit-flavored drinks. The natural sugars and antioxidant activity have been a major advantage to Prekese cutting out the need for additives in its formulation. Filtration of the Prekese pulp to obtain the Prekese concentrate was identified as an important key processing step. Two novel methods of fruit pulp filtration were compared to the traditional methods of filtration. It was found that vacuum rotating drum filtration was the most ideal filtration method compared to membrane filtration and traditional methods of filtration. Food safety regulations and policies are explored to ensure the quality of the final product meets set standards and that the operational process flow meets few complications. A HACCP plan was detailed and summarized.

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