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Do you ever wonder why the alphabet is a necessity for us to exist? We have to go back over 37,000 years ago to find the answer because the idea of the alphabet came into the human mind at that time. Now, it is considered that the invention of the alphabet and writing is more significant than all the triumphs ever achieved, or constitutions invented by man. But why?
This blog will provide the answer and allow you to travel through the universe of language and the alphabet. So, let our journey begin here.
This blog was never written, and you could not read anything if there were no existence of the alphabet. The first thing we ever learned about our native language is the alphabet. It is the way we connect with others and express ourselves. The alphabet is the compilation of the letters a language has.
For example, you will find 26 letters in the English language alphabet.
If you are looking for formal definitions, the alphabet is “a set of letters or symbols in a fixed order used to represent the basic set of speech sounds of a language.”
There would be no difference between humans and the wild if the alphabet was not invented! And no one knows when and how the idea of the alphabet came. But we can still go back to history and find its origin.
Written language has been used by humans since 3300 BC, while spoken language is thought to have developed millions of years ago. The most initial signs of a semi-modern alphabet came to notice throughout the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations. And at the same time, it was found in Southern Mexico and China. Many of the systems, particularly those used by Chinese characters and Egyptian hieroglyphs, may be seen to have evolved along similar paths as time progressed when you trace their modifications.
Meanwhile, in the Sinai Peninsula, non-native speakers of Egyptian combined pieces of the hieroglyphs to produce simplified symbols that represented the sounds of what they saw, giving rise to one of the earliest phonetic alphabets. This rudimentary beginning eventually gave birth to the Phoenician alphabet, which quickly expanded throughout the Mediterranean trade routes and was immediately adopted by the majority of the neighbors. Later, it developed into the Aramaic script, then the Greek alphabet, and lastly, it resulted in the development of the Latin alphabet, which is still used for communication by over 70% of people in the world today.
Maybe at the age of 3, you have learned A-B-C, and after finishing learning, you have taken the term ‘Alphabet’ very lightly. But with time, you will realize how important the Alphabet is in any language and communication process.
Our ability to communicate verbally is the basis for language. Before there existed an alphabet, memory was inspired more by rhythm and sound than by written symbols.
Humans could use more than simply sound to convey a story after the development and widespread use of a formal alphabetic system; they could also use sight and writing. The sounds took on the shape of the alphabet.
These ideas are the foundation for the alphabetic principle, “the notion that represents sounds of a spoken language.” By using a written alphabet, kids are better able to understand that there are “predictable relationships” between sounds and letters, which supports their development of reading, writing, and language fluency.
The possibilities for communication are unlimited once we have aced speaking and writing a language. We can communicate our thoughts, feelings, knowledge, and memories more effectively and accurately. Take into account the social media platforms of today’s unquestionable success. Twitter wouldn’t exist if there were no alphabet.
The epiphany that led to the development of the sound-sign system of writing that became known as our alphabet had an impact on people all around the world and through the ages. Therefore, it is not surprising that the pictograph-to-letter transition began in the dawn of civilization and continued along with the development of modern civilization.
Although the alphabet’s precise origin is still unknown, the Eastern Mediterranean is where it initially appeared. Between the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia, there was a land bridge that included Palestine and Syria. So, it seems logical that the alphabet was created amid these fantastic fields of intellectual growth and creativity. The Akhiram epitaph, discovered near Byblos in Phoenicia in about 1050 BC, is the earliest known usage of the North Semitic alphabet. This 22-letter North Semitic script is thought to be the Phoenician alphabet’s primary progenitor. There are further inscriptions that support the presence of an archetypal alphabetic writing system.
There are two major successors of the North Semitic alphabet. The Canaanite and Aramaic branches are these. The branch Canaanite alphabet evolved into two distinct written styles. These were Early Hebrew and Phoenician. The Phoenician alphabet, which had 22 characters and was largely consistent throughout its life, included the following letters: A, B, G, D, H, W, Z, h, t, Y, K, L, M, N, S, O, P, s, Q, R, s, and T.
The alphabet was extended throughout the Mediterranean region by the Phoenicians because they were excellent navigators and traders. The consonantal Semitic alphabet was adopted by the Greeks circa 1000 BC, according to experts. The fact that many of the Greek alphabet’s letter names are Semitic and have no meanings in Greek other than the letters themselves tends to support the idea that the Greeks borrowed their alphabet. Although they did add a few extra letters, the Greeks maintained the same basic letter arrangement. Consonants that did not correspond to Greek vowel sounds were identified as vowel sound representations. When the phonetic system was fully implemented, an alphabet in the modern meaning of the word emerged at this time.
The first text that has been traced to the Greeks was written from right to left and went back to the eighth century BC. Later writing was discovered in the boustrophedon style, which alternated between readings from right to left and left to right. The direction was established from left to right about the fifth century BC. The eastern and western areas of Greece both used a variety of this alphabet. There were two main alphabetic differences in the eastern section. The most significant and popular was the Ionic. In 403 BC, the government of Athens formally accepted the Ionic branch of this alphabet. The Ionic alphabet supplanted the majority of the other varieties and became the standard Classical alphabet by the 4th century BC.
Italy’s Naples region, which was inhabited by the Etruscans, is where the Greek alphabet was discovered in the eighth century BC. The 22 Semitic letters are followed by 4 Greek letters to make up the Etruscan alphabet, as it is seen on the Marsiliana Tablet. This is similar to the standard Greek alphabet.
The Romans had conquered the Etruscans by the seventh century BC. Their language vanished as a result of this dominance, but their alphabet was assimilated and developed into the Roman or Latin alphabet. Before it was adopted as the Greek alphabet officially, the Romans were employing an altered version of the Greek script. Another interesting fact is that the alphabet was developed simultaneously by the Romans and the Greeks.
Thirteen of the ancient Greek letters were preserved by the Romans. A, B, E, Z, H, I, K, M, N, O, T, X, and Y were among them. They changed and improved C, G, L, S, P, R, D, and V. The Greeks had already dropped the letters F and Q, which they also picked up. Before adopting the current left-to-right writing style, early Romans wrote boustrophedonically and from right to left, just like the Greeks.
Later, the Roman Empire adopted this improved alphabet as its official writing system. The Roman alphabet spread over Europe as a result of the growth of the Roman Catholic Church and the conquests and settlements of the Roman Empire. The alphabet, as we know it now, hasn’t altered much from the one used in Rome in the sixth century BC, save for a few little additions (J, U, and W) and the distinctions made between an upper-case and lower-case writing form.
This only proves the alphabet’s importance as one of history’s greatest accomplishments.
We must take into account both the English language’s and the English alphabet’s history in order to comprehend the English alphabet’s beginnings. Since they come from two distinct clans of languages and only converged thousands of years later, it’s critical to distinguish between the two.
Ancient Greek, Etruscan, and Phoenician cultures are where the alphabet first appeared. This group of cultures created a phonetic alphabet that attributed a sound to each character, whereas the rest of the ancient world depended on hieroglyphics and pictographs. Basically, the Greeks took and modified the Phoenicians’ phonetic alphabet, which the Etruscans then acquired.
Latium is a region on the Italian peninsula where the Etruscan traders and colonists introduced their alphabet. The residents of the Latium area spoke Latin, and they started writing using the phonetic alphabet. The Latin script would eventually come to be known as this.
The Roman Empire was the most well-known country that spoke Latin. The Latin script would never have reached the outer reaches of Europe if it weren’t for their conquest of the areas around the Mediterranean Sea.
Proto denotes the original or primal, while Germanic refers to the language that the early Germanic tribes in Europe spoke. Three Germanic language families emerged from these dialects throughout time –
It was more practical to adopt a nearby alphabet than to create one because the Germanic tribes who spoke these languages lacked a sophisticated written counterpart. This was made possible by Catholic missionaries and the Germanic tribes’ conquest of Roman lands. These occurrences took place somewhere between 300 and 800.
Approximately 450 to 1150 AD saw the use of Old English in Anglo-Saxon Britain. The Old French language was imported into Britain in 1066 by William the Conqueror of Normandy. Here came the end of the Old English period.
With the exception of a few unusual symbols, the majority of the letters of the Old English/Anglo-Saxon alphabet would be recognizable to a modern person who speaks English as their first language. The spoken language, however, would be entirely unintelligible.
Significant changes were made to the original Old English in Middle English. While many of the alphabet’s letters remained mostly unchanged, significant changes were made to the way they were spoken and inflected. Old French was incorporated into the top echelons of the government and the church by the invading Norman invaders. Still, starting in the late 1400s and early 1500s, the language underwent another anglicization. According to academics, this time period lasted from approximately 1150 until 1500.
Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales are arguably the most well-known literary work in which Middle English is used.
The printing press was created at the same time that Modern English began to take shape. The language became more standardized as literature gained popularity. Vocabulary, pronunciation, and structural modifications resulted from this.
The time frame encompassed the present and began around the year 1500. Shakespeare’s writings are examples of early Modern English, whereas Toni Morrison’s works are a better example of Modern English.
Over 1 billion people speak English as a first or second language, and it is the official language of 59 nations worldwide.
It’s often claimed that English has supplanted all other languages as the global tongue. To put it another way, English has emerged as the most widely used language for communication, science, and international business.
As Britain rose to prominence as a global superpower, the English language started to expand. The British Empire spread across most of the continents in the 1700s and 1800s. They spread their language among the indigenous peoples through their colonial governments.
The US economy surpassed all others during the 1900s and 2000s. Learning English became a lucrative endeavor as free commerce and globalization grew. It was impossible to imagine a more straightforward manner to conduct business.
These elements were responsible for the English language’s and the English alphabet’s swift expansion in both usage and population.
English is a dynamic language. It has been adapting and developing as it is used. However, the language had many more characters before our contemporary alphabet was created, which we have subsequently eliminated from our 26-letter lineup. The six who were butchered most recently are –
The letter eth, which gradually fused with y throughout time, is where the y in the word ye actually originates. Eth sounded like the ‘th’ sound in words like this, that, and the in its most basic form. Although ye is intended to sound the same as the linguistically, the wrong spelling and widespread mispronunciation persist.
Thorn is Eth’s opposite in many ways. Thorn is similarly spoken with a ‘th’ sound but is voiceless (your vocal cords do not vibrate as you pronounce the word, unlike in a thing or idea).
Today, the same set of letters is used to represent the sounds (þ) and (ð). There is a difference in how the words are pronounced—thorn has a voiceless pronunciation, whereas eth has a voiced pronunciation—but this is something you learn as you get better at speaking. Of course, since it is English for you, you won’t learn about this at school.
To symbolize the sound of the modern w, Wynn was added to our alphabet. A single character, Wynn from the runic alphabet, was preferred to the two u characters that scribes had previously used next to each other. The double-U image gained a lot of traction and ultimately defeated Wynn. Ouch.
Historically, the term “yogh” was used to describe throaty sounds, such as those in Bach or the Scottish Loch. Yogh was quickly replaced by the gh combination as English changed. The sound is now rather uncommon. As in through or daughter, the gh replacement is typically absolutely quiet.
In alphabets like Danish and Icelandic, the letter ash is still used. It represented a specific form of the long vowel tone in Latin, similar to i in fine. It stood in for a short vowel sound, similar to the sound in the word cat in Old English. In modern English, ae is employed stylistically, such as in archaeology or medieval, yet it signifies the identical sound as the letter e.
Although it sounded like the oi in coil, Ethel also once stood for a certain pronunciation that fell midway between the two vowels o and e. In favor of a more straightforward vowel sequence (a, e, I, o, u) with numerous pronunciations, this letter likewise vanished along with other clarifying distinctions.
However, this does not mean that in the current day, alphabetic change has ceased. The printing press, which was invented around 1450, made it possible to standardize formats, maintain consistency in font and layout, and make it simple to spread and reproduce ideas. The typewriter gave way to speed and language layouts that differed culturally (such as the ever-fascinating Japanese keyboard system and Qwerty versus Qwertz).
We now have standardized Unicode and software for translation that enables everyone to converse over extremely long distances almost immediately, despite the widespread adoption of electronic devices and the internet. We also can’t forget about our small evolutionary communication slip-up, where we now employ emojis – our contemporary hieroglyphs – to further communicate our feelings and ideas in our daily discussions.
The human experience has always been significantly influenced by visual documentation. Man has attempted to permanently record his thoughts and ideas from the Lascaux cave paintings to the personal computer. The alphabet’s development has made it possible for humankind to record and preserve information, enabling civilizations to acquire knowledge from earlier times and move forward into the future efficiently visually. The development of the alphabet continues to be one of the most important instruments created by humans, second only to the printing press.
The modern English alphabet has 26 letters. Among them, 23 letters are from old English, and the rest three were added later.
Yes. Different language has different alphabets with different numbers of letters. For example, English has 26, Latin has 23, Arabic has 28, Bengali has 51, and Devnagari has 47 letters in their alphabet.
The history of the English alphabet is connected with the Latin language. Latin’s alphabet consists of 20 letters, and it lends three letters from the Greek alphabet. But only 23 letters were not enough for all the sounds. And that’s why today’s English alphabet has 26 letters.
People speak over 7000 languages worldwide. Unfortunately, almost 50% of them don’t have any written form. That’s why the total number of alphabets throughout the world is unknown. But the number of letters in the alphabet remains unchanged. It doesn’t matter where the location is.
Yes. Different languages have different numbers of letters in their alphabet. And they are both more and fewer than the letters in the English alphabet. For example, Arabic has 28 letters, Spanish has 27 letters, Japanese has 46 letters, and Italian has 21 letters.