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Impact of Obesity on Health: Causes, Risks and Management

Prevalence of Obesity and Overweight Conditions in Canada

Obesity is recognized as a complex metabolic disorder that involves the accumulation of excessive fat in the body, thereby increasing the risk of developing other health issues such as high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. The most common cause of obesity includes lack of proper physical activity, development of other conditions, genetic issue, and eating disorders. It requires effective intervention management to lower the chance of developing complications (Lebanbaum et al., 2018). In 2016, more than 1.9 billion adults above the age of 18year were overweight, and the accumulation of fat increases the risk of health impairment. Does lack of proper diet, physical activity, and lack of awareness increase the risk of developing obesity and adverse health outcome? The below paper will discuss the impact of obesity concerning the health of the individual. 

In 2017, it was reported that almost 64% of the Canadian population was suffering from obesity and being overweight. Children between the age of 5 to 17 years were found to be overweight, and the Northwest Territories had the highest rate of obesity which is 33.07%. In the year 2020, 28% of Canadian adults between the age of 18 are found to be suffering from obesity and overweight conditions, and the percentage is constantly increasing, which impacts the health of teenagers along with middle-aged individuals (Ellison et al., 2016). There exist various health issues which are associated with the development of obesity, such as type 2 diabetes, stroke, gallbladder disease, development of cancer, and high blood pressure. Management of proper diet and physical activity is essential for lowering the prevalence of obesity (Rao et al., 2016). 

Cleven et al. (2020) performed a study to determine the association between the importance of physical activity and the development of coronary heart disease and obesity, diabetes, and hypertension among the adult population. It is considered a non-communicable disease that impacts the individual's health over time, thereby triggering the development of various health disorders, including obesity, hypertension, physical inactivity, and coronary heart disease. The study clearly described that an individual with two physical activities is associated with the development of obesity. The individual who maintained regular physical activity was reported to have a lower incidence of obesity. The percentage of elevated levels was 14.2% among individuals with physical inactivity. Ades et al. (2017) highlighted that obesity is found to be higher among the patients suffering from coronary heart disease and the implementation of cardiac rehabilitation often fails to address the severity of the condition by enhancing the chance of severe Cardiac disease.

Health Issues Associated with Obesity

The study highlighted that implementing behavioral weight loss intervention would be effective for the obese patient to address the metabolic condition by maintaining a proper diet and physical activity. The selected intervention significantly improves metabolic syndrome such as hypertension, lipid abnormalities, and insulin sensitivity. Thus, the study indicated that prolonged periods of obesity impact the patient's health by triggering the development of other diseases, including diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. Garcia-Jimenez et al. (2016) highlighted strong evidence and the complex relationship between diabetes, cancer, and obesity.

The development of type 2 diabetes is mainly associated with obesity as it is found that an obese individual with the enhanced amount of glycerol, NEFA, pro-inflammatory substance, hormones, and cytokinins are involved in the development of insulin resistance cells. Deposition of fat in the cells affects the beta-cell function of the pancreas by triggering the development of diabetes among the obesity patient.

On the other hand, it is also reported that obesity increases the risk of developing covid-19 infection due to poor immune systems and search conditions enhanced the mortality rate among the population. The development of obesity results in metabolic disorders and impacts health by increasing the chance of cognitive impairment and affecting the individual's health. Dye et al. (2017) highlighted that there exists a relationship between mental health declination and the development of obesity among the patient. The study describes a relationship between cognitive impairment and the effect of obesity among the aged population.  The characteristic evidence of neurodegenerative disorder due to social pressure and financial burden enhances the chance of developing dementia among older adults.

Lack of physical movement or lack of proper diet intake increases the risk of developing cognitive impairment among the patients. The result of the study highlighted that it is essential to maintain an appropriate diet of the older adult suffering from obesity to prevent the risk of developing various illnesses, including dementia, and thereby enhance the quality of life by lowering the prevalence of adverse health outcomes. A higher prevalence of obesity increases the risk of developing a public health crisis by increasing the chance of developing diabetes, osteoarthritis, and coronary health disease (Agha & Argha 2017).

The most common cause of obesity is lack of proper physical activity, development of other diseases, genetic issues, and eating disorders. It requires effective intervention management to lower the chance of developing complications. Lastly, the study highlighted the long-term impact of obesity upon the health of the individual and quality of life.

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