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Gender Inequalities in Domestic and Paid Work

The Sociological Perspective on Gender Relations and Domestic Work

The inequality within the family when it comes to working, payment, and domestic labour have been a subject of sociological and gender studies. Many families face the daunting challenge of earning and caring for the domestic needs of their families. For example, families with both couples with higher education and working at managerial levels, and others with barely any education and struggling to make ends meet face similar challenges in apportioning domestic chores and care of children (Luxton, 1997). The patriarchal system operated by most societies requires that men do fewer jobs at home and earn more to care for the family needs, while the opposite is required of women (Luxton, 1997). Men are encouraged to do domestic work in their homes, yet women take a larger portion of domestic work and childcare (Luxton, 1997). Women are involved in the planning, organizing, and logistics of domestic work, children care, alongside official work (Luxton, 1997). The power dynamics between spouses and gender roles with married couples have influenced how domestic work is split among the involved parties (Luxton, 1997). Different studies assume that increasing the number of women in the labour market will increase the balance between paid work and unpaid domestic work will level up both gender involvement in family domestic work (Luxton, 1997). To their dismay, the inequality in domestic work participation and paid circular employment has increasingly widened (Luxton, 1997). The societal belief in women’s preoccupation with domestic work and childcare is responsible for the uneven gender representation in the labour market. A well-managed home is in the women’s to do list, yet it does not stick to the men’s menu. There are pertinent questions concerning gender bias in involving and completing house chores in different households, that remain unanswered. Such questions include, why state policies aimed to shape the social structure to normalize housework as the traditional gender norm to exploit women silently but continuously. The institutionalized sexism of political and corporate culture ideologically support the women’s exploitation through domestic labour division.
Discussion about gender relationship is complex and multidimensional, yet its outcomes are being impinged on different aspects of everyday life (Agarwal, B.2000). This complexity rooted in historical patriarchal ideology based on which not only the division of labor and resources are defined but also all the ideas and representations are being shaped. The gender relation as it has seen in different culture is socially construct and dynamic. However, what has clearly misunderstood and has been maintained over time is the gender inequalities. 
The oppressive nature of relegating the middle-class women to household chores has been accentuated by the influence of neoliberalism. The economic inequality under neoliberalism reform introduced by Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan affects many workers who are working in the pink-collar service work with low pay, low job advancements and career instability. Students may pick any topic that deals with any social issue relating to Canadian families. Students are required to write a sociological paper that is analytical and critical. It is imperative to note that the writing of a sociological paper requires the primary use of scholarly sociological sources, such as sociological scholarly journals, sociological books, and sociological edited collections. The paper MUST include a minimum of FIVE sociological scholarly sources (books, scholarly journal articles) NOT including the course text book and relevant course materials. The essay should be 7-8 pages in length, with one inch margins, size 12 font, double spaced and stapled, not including the bibliography or title page. Do not triple or quadruple space between paragraphs. In doing so, you immediately signify to me that you have not met the minimum length requirements for this paper. Moreover, triple and quadruple spacing between paragraphs is improper formatting and does not meet the standards of APA or Chicago Style. 
Students are required to include a full bibliography of all materials used in the paper. 
Late papers will not be accepted without consent from the course director obtained PRIOR to the scheduled due date. Papers must be submitted to the Assignments drop box in D2L. Please note that references that are NOT scholarly sources and will NOT count in your bibliography as scholarly sources include the following: 
• Newspaper articles (i.e., The Toronto Star, The Toronto Sun, The Globe and Mail, The National Post, etc.) 
• magazine articles (Maclean’s, Newsweek, The Economist, etc.) 
• encyclopedia references (including Wikipedia) 
• dictionary references (including Oxford Dictionary and other dictionaries) 
• non-scholarly websites, blogs, etc. Students should also note that government websites and statistical data are what are considered primary sources. These sources require interpretation and analysis. Rely on your secondary scholarly resources for analysis and interpretation of statistical date and government policies. On their own, they are NOT scholarly sources and will NOT count as one of the five scholarly sources required for this paper. Government websites and statistical data provide information that is NOT scholarly and NOT analytical. Statistics denote a social trend but can be interpreted in numerous and contradictory ways. 
Statistics themselves are devoid of analysis. Simply stating a statistic does not explain or explore any critical sociological analysis. Similarly, government websites state government policy that is devoid of analysis, and usually reproduces mainstream stereotypes, assumptions and misconceptions. Critical sociological analysis provides a critique of mainstream stereotypes and assumptions. The use of government data requires critical sociological analysis. Please note that these government websites and statistics include, but are not limited to the following: 
• Statistics Canada 
• Ministry of Immigration and Citizenship 
• Government of Canada website 
• Government of Ontario website 
Scholarly journal articles can be retrieved on-line through the Ryerson Library journal abstracts website, Sociological Abstracts. Sources acquired on-line through Sociological Abstracts do not require instructor permission. Nonetheless, it is the student’s responsibility to vet the source and determine whether or not it is sociological. Just because the database is called Sociological Abstracts does not mean that all sources that it lists are sociological. Depending on the topic, some sources that show up are psychological and medical. 
Students should also note that the research paper is a SOCIOLOGICAL paper that requires SOCIOLOGICAL analysis. Scholarly sources are required to be limited to sociological sources. Scholarly sources that are NOT sociological and will NOT be counted as part of your FIVE required sociological scholarly sources include: 
• Nursing journals and books 
• Medical journals and books 
• Economic journals and books 
• Business journals and books 
• Social work journals and books 
• Psychology journals and books 
• Social psychology journals and books 
• Behavioural science journals and books 
• Biology journals and books 
• Genetics journals and book

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