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Instant OSCOLA References in 3 Steps

Just include the required details and hit GENERATE

Example References for

Example Reference

K Brown and H Keller, An Introduction to Comparative Law (Tony Kirk tr, 3rd edn, OUP 1998)

Example In-Text Citation for a

Hoops J, Commentary on Beowulf (Carl Winters University of Germany, 1932)

Croat R, Title of the Book Review (2011) The Philosophy of Criminal Law 637

What is the Concept of OSCOLA Referencing

Want to know about the OSCOLA referencing in detail? Hear it from the experts!

The Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities is abbreviated as OSCOLA. The OSCOLA referencing does not aim to be exhaustive; rather, it demonstrates the rules and precedents followed in the UK legal system. Also, note that the citations are placed in footnotes at this system's bottom of the page.

Moreover, OSCOLA referencing is now used by law schools all over the UK and overseas. The rules of OSCOLA referencing are updated every three to four years.

Looking for more detailed tutorials on OSCOLA referencing? We are always happy to help you!

At, we have a team of brilliant writers who are well-versed in OSCOLA referencing style. So, if you are new to OSCOLA referencing, visit our business portal, and connect to us. We are committed to providing you with the best OSCOLA referencing guidance possible!

OSCOLA Referencing Generator -'s Newest AI Tool

Running out of time to put your references in order? has the best solution!

Our experts have developed an AI-advanced OSCOLA referencing generator with the format in mind. Using our OSCOLA referencing generator not only makes citations easier but it also contributes to higher grades in your law assignments.

You need not be a tech whiz to use our OSCOLA referencing generator. In fact, the following is a simple process to use our OSCOLA referencing generator -

  • Select the source
  • Fill in the blanks with the information provided by the tool.
  • Select the 'Cite This for Me in OSCOLA' option.

That is all! Try the free OSCOLA referencing generator, and you will receive completed citations instantly!

Need an Expert's Hand on OSCOLA Referencing Guide?

Our PhD experts understand that it is often difficult to grasp a new referencing format in a short amount of time. Hence, our team have mentioned below simple rules in case you are looking for an authentic OSCOLA referencing guide -

  • The footnote should be placed after the relevant punctuation in the text unless clarity must place it directly after the word or phrase.
  • The footnote should appear before the final bracket if the cited phrase or idea is enclosed in brackets.
  • Citations use minimal punctuation, such as UKHL rather than U.K.H.L.
  • Footnotes should be terminated with a period
  • Book titles and case names should be italicised.
  • In a footnote, semicolons can be used to separate references to two different sources.
  • Quotes more than three lines long should be presented in an indented paragraph with no quotation marks.

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What is the Rule for OSCOLA Referencing Style?

Wondering how to present OSCOLA referencing style in your law assignment?

To your rescue, our law experts have mentioned below the appropriate OSCOLA referencing style -

The general scheme followed is -

‘Country / Autonomous Community. Title. Publication, publication date, number, pages. You can check here some examples of using the OSCOLA referencing style -

  • The format for citing a book - author, | title | (additional information, | edition, | publisher | year)

    Example: Gareth Jones, Goff, and Jones: The Law of Restitution (1st supp, 7th edn, Sweet & Maxwell 2009)

  • The format for citing a journal – author, | ‘title’ | [year] OR (year) | volume/issue | journal name or abbreviation | | date accessed

    Example: Graham Greenleaf, ‘The Global Development of Free Access to Legal Information’ (2010) 1(1) EJLT accessed 27 July 2010

    Paul Craig, ‘Theory, “Pure Theory” and Values in Public Law’ [2005] PL 440

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Looking for OSCOLA Referencing Examples to Get Ideas?

You are at the right place if you are looking for OSCOLA referencing examples and samples for a quick learning.

How to reference in OSCOLA style in footnotes?

When citing any source as a quotation or referring to ideas in a source, add OSCOLA referencing in a footnote.

Here is an example -

Text Representation - Recent cases have raised questions about the extent of executive power and its relationship to parliamentary sovereignty.15 However, this does not mean that…

In Footnotes -15 Cherry v Advocate General [2019] CSIH 49, 2020 SC 37; R (on the application of Miller) v Prime Minister [2019] UKSC 41, [2020] AC 373.

How to cite a website in OSCOLA?

When citing a website in OSCOLA referencing, follow the below format -

Format: Author, 'Entry Title' (Blog Name, publication date) accessed date.

Example: R Moorhead, 'Solicitors First' (Lawyer Watch, 25 March 2011)

< > accessed 13 April 2011.

How to cite cases in OSCOLA?

The components of a typical case citation in OSCOLA referencing including a neutral citation are:

Format - case name | [year] | court | number, | [year] OR (year) | volume | report abbreviation | first page.

Example - Corr v IBC Vehicles Ltd [2008] UKHL 13, [2008] 1 AC 884.

How to reference a paragraph in OSCOLA?

Usually, the pinpoint for a paragraph will be a page number but with judgments. Especially with neutral citations, use a paragraph number instead. The paragraph number should be enclosed within square brackets [ ].

Example - Callery v Gray [2001] EWCA Civ 1117, [2001] 1 WLR 2112 [42], [45].

OSCOLA in text referencing

In OSCOLA referencing, the style uses footnotes in the text, rather than in-text citation.

Text Representation – ‘Neville states that The Oxford University Commonwealth Law Journal was involved in developing the OSCOLA referencing system.1’

The reference in the footnote at the bottom of the page – 1 Colin Neville, The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism (2nd edn, OU Press 2010).

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1. What is OSCOLA Referencing?

The Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA) is a style guide for referencing that provides the modern method of legal citation in the United Kingdom.

2. Is OSCOLA the same as Harvard?

There is a certain difference between OSCOLA and Harvard. Here is what you need to know - The OSCOLA method uses footnotes to place references at the end of each page, whilst the Harvard method includes certain information within the text.

3. Does OSCOLA referencing need a bibliography?

Yes, you must always include a bibliography when using OSCOLA referencing. Every reference you include in your footnotes must also be in your bibliography.

4. Is OSCOLA an EndNote?

OSCOLA is a footnote style: all citations appear in footnotes. OSCOLA does not use endnotes or in-text citations

5. How To Use OSCOLA Referencing Generator?

Here are the three steps to use OSCOLA Referencing Generator -

  • Follow the instructions specified on the tool.
  • Change the types of sources according to your requirements.
  • Hit the ‘Cite the Sources’ button.
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